Trinidad and Tobago

source : World Fact Book 2008 (October 2008)

SEE UPDATED INFORMATION HERE

   Introduction    Trinidad and Tobago
Background:
Definition Field Listing First colonized by the Spanish, the islands came under British control in the early 19th century. The islands' sugar industry was hurt by the emancipation of the slaves in 1834. Manpower was replaced with the importation of contract laborers from India between 1845 and 1917, which boosted sugar production as well as the cocoa industry. The discovery of oil on Trinidad in 1910 added another important export. Independence was attained in 1962. The country is one of the most prosperous in the Caribbean thanks largely to petroleum and natural gas production and processing. Tourism, mostly in Tobago, is targeted for expansion and is growing. The government is coping with a rise in violent crime.
   Geography    Trinidad and Tobago
Location:
Definition Field Listing Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, northeast of Venezuela
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing 11 00 N, 61 00 W
Map references:
Definition Field Listing Central America and the Caribbean
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 5,128 sq km
land: 5,128 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing slightly smaller than Delaware
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing 0 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing 362 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the outer edge of the continental margin
Climate:
Definition Field Listing tropical; rainy season (June to December)
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing mostly plains with some hills and low mountains
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: El Cerro del Aripo 940 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing petroleum, natural gas, asphalt
Land use:
Definition Field Listing arable land: 14.62%
permanent crops: 9.16%
other: 76.22% (2005)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing 40 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources:
Definition Field Listing 3.8 cu km (2000)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
Definition Field Listing total: 0.31 cu km/yr (68%/26%/6%)
per capita: 237 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing outside usual path of hurricanes and other tropical storms
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing water pollution from agricultural chemicals, industrial wastes, and raw sewage; oil pollution of beaches; deforestation; soil erosion
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing Pitch Lake, on Trinidad's southwestern coast, is the world's largest natural reservoir of asphalt
   People    Trinidad and Tobago
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 1,047,366 (July 2008 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing 0-14 years: 19% (male 102,352/female 96,487)
15-64 years: 71.8% (male 396,352/female 356,080)
65 years and over: 9.2% (male 42,998/female 53,097) (2008 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing total: 32.3 years
male: 31.9 years
female: 32.8 years (2008 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing -0.891% (2008 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 13.22 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 10.93 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order -11.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.11 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female
total population: 1.07 male(s)/female (2008 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 23.59 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 25.34 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 21.76 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total population: 67 years
male: 66.07 years
female: 67.98 years (2008 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 1.73 children born/woman (2008 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 3.2% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 29,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 1,900 (2003 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing noun: Trinidadian(s), Tobagonian(s)
adjective: Trinidadian, Tobagonian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing Indian (South Asian) 40%, African 37.5%, mixed 20.5%, other 1.2%, unspecified 0.8% (2000 census)
Religions:
Definition Field Listing Roman Catholic 26%, Hindu 22.5%, Anglican 7.8%, Baptist 7.2%, Pentecostal 6.8%, Muslim 5.8%, Seventh Day Adventist 4%, other Christian 5.8%, other 10.8%, unspecified 1.4%, none 1.9% (2000 census)
Languages:
Definition Field Listing English (official), Caribbean Hindustani (a dialect of Hindi), French, Spanish, Chinese
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98.6%
male: 99.1%
female: 98% (2003 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
Definition Field Listing total: 11 years
male: 11 years
female: 11 years (2005)
Education expenditures:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 4.2% of GDP (200)
   Government    Trinidad and Tobago
Country name:
Definition Field Listing conventional long form: Republic of Trinidad and Tobago
conventional short form: Trinidad and Tobago
Government type:
Definition Field Listing parliamentary democracy
Capital:
Definition Field Listing name: Port-of-Spain
geographic coordinates: 10 39 N, 61 31 W
time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing 9 regional corporations, 2 city corporations, 3 borough corporations, 1 ward
regional corporations: Couva/Tabaquite/Talparo, Diego Martin, Mayaro/Rio Claro, Penal/Debe, Princes Town, Sangre Grande, San Juan/Laventille, Siparia, Tunapuna/Piarco
city corporations: Port-of-Spain, San Fernando
borough corporations: Arima, Chaguanas, Point Fortin
ward: Tobago
Independence:
Definition Field Listing 31 August 1962 (from UK)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing Independence Day, 31 August (1962)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing 1 August 1976
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing based on English common law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing chief of state: President George Maxwell RICHARDS (since 17 March 2003)
head of government: Prime Minister Patrick MANNING (since 24 December 2001)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed from among the members of Parliament
elections: president elected by an electoral college, which consists of the members of the Senate and House of Representatives, for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 11 February 2008 (next to be held by February 2013); the president usually appoints as prime minister the leader of the majority party in the House of Representatives
election results: George Maxwell RICHARDS reelected president; percent of electoral college vote - NA
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (31 seats; 16 members appointed by the ruling party, nine by the President, six by the opposition party to serve a maximum term of five years) and the House of Representatives (41 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: House of Representatives - last held on 5 November 2007 (next to be held in 2012)
election results: House of Representatives - percent of vote - PNM 46%, UNC 29.7%; seats by party - PNM 26, UNC 15
note: Tobago has a unicameral House of Assembly with 12 members serving four-year terms; last election held in January 2005; seats by party - PNM 11, DAC 1
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing Supreme Court of Judicature (comprised of the High Court of Justice and the Court of Appeals; the chief justice is appointed by the president after consultation with the prime minister and the leader of the opposition; other justices are appointed by the president on the advice of the Judicial and Legal Service Commission); High Court of Justice; Caribbean Court of Appeals member; Court of Appeals; the highest court of appeal is the Privy Council in London
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing Congress of the People [Winston DOOKERAN]; Democratic Action Congress or DAC [Hochoy CHARLES] (only active in Tobago); Democratic National Alliance or DNA [Gerald YETMING] (coalition of NAR, DDPT, MND); Movement for National Development or MND [Garvin NICHOLAS]; National Alliance for Reconstruction or NAR [Dr. Carson CHARLES]; People's National Movement or PNM [Patrick MANNING]; United National Congress or UNC [Basdeo PANDAY]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing Jamaat-al Muslimeen [Yasin BAKR]
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, FAO, G-24, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAES, MIGA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing chief of mission: Ambassador Glenda MOREAN-PHILLIP
chancery: 1708 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 467-6490
FAX: [1] (202) 785-3130
consulate(s) general: Miami, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing chief of mission: Ambassador Roy L. AUSTIN
embassy: 15 Queen's Park West, Port-of-Spain
mailing address: P. O. Box 752, Port-of-Spain
telephone: [1] (868) 622-6371 through 6376
FAX: [1] (868) 628-5462
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing red with a white-edged black diagonal band from the upper hoist side to the lower fly side
   Economy    Trinidad and Tobago
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing Trinidad and Tobago has earned a reputation as an excellent investment site for international businesses and has one of the highest growth rates and per capita incomes in Latin America. Recent growth has been fueled by investments in liquefied natural gas (LNG), petrochemicals, and steel. Additional petrochemical, aluminum, and plastics projects are in various stages of planning. Trinidad and Tobago is the leading Caribbean producer of oil and gas, and its economy is heavily dependent upon these resources but it also supplies manufactured goods, notably food and beverages, as well as cement to the Caribbean region. Oil and gas account for about 40% of GDP and 80% of exports, but only 5% of employment. The country is also a regional financial center, and tourism is a growing sector, although it is not proportionately as important as in many other Caribbean islands. The economy benefits from a growing trade surplus. Economic growth reached 12.6% in 2006 and 5.5% in 2007 as prices for oil, petrochemicals, and LNG remained high, and as foreign direct investment continued to grow to support expanded capacity in the energy sector.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $26.79 billion (2007 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
Definition Field Listing $20.7 billion (2007 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 5.5% (2007 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $25,400 (2007 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing agriculture: 0.6%
industry: 62%
services: 37.5% (2007 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 622,000 (2007 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing agriculture 4%, manufacturing, mining, and quarrying 12.9%, construction and utilities 17.5%, services 65.6% (2006 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 4.5% (2007 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing 17% (2007 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 7.9% (2007 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 16.7% of GDP (2007 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing revenues: $6.332 billion
expenditures: $5.969 billion (2007 est.)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 27.9% of GDP (2007 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing cocoa, rice, citrus, coffee, vegetables; poultry
Industries:
Definition Field Listing petroleum, chemicals, tourism, food processing, cement, beverage, cotton textiles
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 6.5% (2007 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 7.704 billion kWh (2007)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 7.083 billion kWh (2007)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing 0 kWh (2005)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing 0 kWh (2005)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 120,300 bbl/day (2007 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 24,770 bbl/day (2007 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 202,100 bbl/day (2004)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 91,780 bbl/day (2004)
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 605.8 million bbl (1 January 2007 est.)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 39.92 billion cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 37.29 billion cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 21.03 billion cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0 cu m (2007)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 702.8 billion cu m (1 January 2007 est.)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $5.378 billion (2007 est.)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $13.39 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing petroleum and petroleum products, liquefied natural gas (LNG), methanol, ammonia, urea, steel products, beverages, cereal and cereal products, sugar, cocoa, coffee, citrus fruit, vegetables, flowers
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing US 58.7%, Jamaica 6%, Spain 4% (2007)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $7.67 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing mineral fuels, lubricants, machinery, transportation equipment, manufactured goods, food, live animals, grain
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing US 27.9%, Brazil 12.3%, Venezuela 8.1%, Gabon 4.9%, Colombia 4.8%, China 4.1% (2007)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing $200,000 (2007 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $6.745 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $2.869 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $12.44 billion (2007)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $1.419 billion (2007)
Market value of publicly traded shares:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $15.57 billion (2006)
Currency (code):
Definition Field Listing Trinidad and Tobago dollar (TTD)
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing Trinidad and Tobago dollars per US dollar - 6.3275 (2007), 6.3107 (2006), 6.2842 (2005), 6.299 (2004), 6.2951 (2003)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing 1 October - 30 September
   Communications    Trinidad and Tobago
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 323,800 (2007)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 1.008 million (2007)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing general assessment: excellent international service; good local service
domestic: mobile-cellular teledensity exceeds 150 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 1-868; submarine cable systems provide connectivity to US and parts of the Caribbean and South America; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); tropospheric scatter to Barbados and Guyana
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing AM 4, FM 18, shortwave 0 (2001)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing 6 (2005)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing .tt
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 24,681 (2007)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 430,800 (2007)
   Transportation    Trinidad and Tobago
Airports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 6 (2007)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing total: 3
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2007)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing total: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 2 (2007)
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing condensate 245 km; gas 1,320 km; oil 563 km (2007)
Roadways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 8,320 km
paved: 4,252 km
unpaved: 4,068 km (2000)
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 9 ships (1000 GRT or over) 27,599 GRT/10,738 DWT
by type: passenger 2, passenger/cargo 5, petroleum tanker 2
foreign-owned: 1 (US 1)
registered in other countries: 2 (Bahamas 1, unknown 1) (2008)
Ports and terminals:
Definition Field Listing Point Fortin, Point Lisas, Port-of-Spain
   Military    Trinidad and Tobago
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing Trinidad and Tobago Defense Force (TTDF): Trinidad and Tobago Regiment, Coast Guard, Air Guard (2008)
Military service age and obligation:
Definition Field Listing 18 years of age for voluntary military service (16 years of age with parental consent); no conscription (2008)
Manpower available for military service:
Definition Field Listing males age 16-49: 301,561
females age 16-49: 264,225 (2008 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing males age 16-49: 215,310
females age 16-49: 180,526 (2008 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
Definition Field Listing male: 8,671
female: 8,153 (2008 est.)
Military expenditures:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0.3% of GDP (2006)
   Transnational Issues    Trinidad and Tobago
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing in April 2006, the Permanent Court of Arbitration issued a decision that delimited a maritime boundary with Trinidad and Tobago and compelled Barbados to enter a fishing agreement that limited Barbadian fishermen's catches of flying fish in Trinidad and Tobago's exclusive economic zone; in 2005, Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago agreed to compulsory international arbitration under UNCLOS challenging whether the northern limit of Trinidad and Tobago's and Venezuela's maritime boundary extends into Barbadian waters; Guyana has also expressed its intention to include itself in the arbitration as the Trinidad and Tobago-Venezuela maritime boundary may extend into its waters as well
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing transshipment point for South American drugs destined for the US and Europe; producer of cannabis


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Source : CIA's World Fact Book 2008

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