source : World Fact Book 2008 (October 2008)


   Introduction    Norway
Definition Field Listing Two centuries of Viking raids into Europe tapered off following the adoption of Christianity by King Olav TRYGGVASON in 994. Conversion of the Norwegian kingdom occurred over the next several decades. In 1397, Norway was absorbed into a union with Denmark that lasted more than four centuries. In 1814, Norwegians resisted the cession of their country to Sweden and adopted a new constitution. Sweden then invaded Norway but agreed to let Norway keep its constitution in return for accepting the union under a Swedish king. Rising nationalism throughout the 19th century led to a 1905 referendum granting Norway independence. Although Norway remained neutral in World War I, it suffered heavy losses to its shipping. Norway proclaimed its neutrality at the outset of World War II, but was nonetheless occupied for five years by Nazi Germany (1940-45). In 1949, neutrality was abandoned and Norway became a member of NATO. Discovery of oil and gas in adjacent waters in the late 1960s boosted Norway's economic fortunes. The current focus is on containing spending on the extensive welfare system and planning for the time when petroleum reserves are depleted. In referenda held in 1972 and 1994, Norway rejected joining the EU.
   Geography    Norway
Definition Field Listing Northern Europe, bordering the North Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Sweden
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing 62 00 N, 10 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing Europe
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 323,802 sq km
land: 307,442 sq km
water: 16,360 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing slightly larger than New Mexico
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing total: 2,542 km
border countries: Finland 727 km, Sweden 1,619 km, Russia 196 km
Definition Field Listing 25,148 km (includes mainland 2,650 km, as well as long fjords, numerous small islands, and minor indentations 22,498 km; length of island coastlines 58,133 km)
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 10 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm
Definition Field Listing temperate along coast, modified by North Atlantic Current; colder interior with increased precipitation and colder summers; rainy year-round on west coast
Definition Field Listing glaciated; mostly high plateaus and rugged mountains broken by fertile valleys; small, scattered plains; coastline deeply indented by fjords; arctic tundra in north
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing lowest point: Norwegian Sea 0 m
highest point: Galdhopiggen 2,469 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, titanium, pyrites, nickel, fish, timber, hydropower
Land use:
Definition Field Listing arable land: 2.7%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 97.3% (2005)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing 1,270 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources:
Definition Field Listing 381.4 cu km (2005)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
Definition Field Listing total: 2.4 cu km/yr (23%/67%/10%)
per capita: 519 cu m/yr (1996)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing rockslides, avalanches
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing water pollution; acid rain damaging forests and adversely affecting lakes, threatening fish stocks; air pollution from vehicle emissions
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing about two-thirds mountains; some 50,000 islands off its much indented coastline; strategic location adjacent to sea lanes and air routes in North Atlantic; one of most rugged and longest coastlines in the world
   People    Norway
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 4,644,457 (July 2008 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing 0-14 years: 18.8% (male 446,146/female 426,166)
15-64 years: 66.2% (male 1,559,750/female 1,516,217)
65 years and over: 15% (male 297,175/female 399,003) (2008 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing total: 39 years
male: 38.2 years
female: 39.9 years (2008 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing 0.35% (2008 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 11.12 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 9.33 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 1.71 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2008 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 3.61 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 3.96 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.24 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total population: 79.81 years
male: 77.16 years
female: 82.6 years (2008 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 1.78 children born/woman (2008 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 2,100 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order fewer than 100 (2003 est.)
Definition Field Listing noun: Norwegian(s)
adjective: Norwegian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing Norwegian 94.4% (includes Sami, about 60,000), other European 3.6%, other 2% (2007 estimate)
Definition Field Listing Church of Norway 85.7%, Pentecostal 1%, Roman Catholic 1%, other Christian 2.4%, Muslim 1.8%, other 8.1% (2004)
Definition Field Listing Bokmal Norwegian (official), Nynorsk Norwegian (official), small Sami- and Finnish-speaking minorities; note - Sami is official in six municipalities
Definition Field Listing definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 100%
male: 100%
female: 100%
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
Definition Field Listing total: 17 years
male: 17 years
female: 18 years (2006)
Education expenditures:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 7.2% of GDP (2005)
   Government    Norway
Country name:
Definition Field Listing conventional long form: Kingdom of Norway
conventional short form: Norway
local long form: Kongeriket Norge
local short form: Norge
Government type:
Definition Field Listing constitutional monarchy
Definition Field Listing name: Oslo
geographic coordinates: 59 55 N, 10 45 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing 19 counties (fylker, singular - fylke); Akershus, Aust-Agder, Buskerud, Finnmark, Hedmark, Hordaland, More og Romsdal, Nordland, Nord-Trondelag, Oppland, Oslo, Ostfold, Rogaland, Sogn og Fjordane, Sor-Trondelag, Telemark, Troms, Vest-Agder, Vestfold
Dependent areas:
Definition Field Listing Bouvet Island, Jan Mayen, Svalbard
Definition Field Listing 7 June 1905 (Norway declared the union with Sweden dissolved); 26 October 1905 (Sweden agreed to the repeal of the union)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing Constitution Day, 17 May (1814)
Definition Field Listing 17 May 1814; amended many times
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing mixture of customary law, civil law system, and common law traditions; Supreme Court renders advisory opinions to legislature when asked; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
Definition Field Listing 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing chief of state: King HARALD V (since 17 January 1991); Heir Apparent Crown Prince HAAKON MAGNUS, son of the monarch (born 20 July 1973)
head of government: Prime Minister Jens STOLTENBERG (since 17 October 2005)
cabinet: State Council appointed by the monarch with the approval of parliament
elections: the monarch is hereditary; following parliamentary elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the monarch with the approval of the parliament
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing modified unicameral Parliament or Storting (169 seats; members are elected by popular vote by proportional representation to serve four-year terms); note - in 2009 the number of seats will change to 165
elections: last held 12 September 2005 (next to be held in September 2009)
election results: percent of vote by party - Labor Party 32.7%, Progress Party 22.1%, Conservative Party 14.1%, Socialist Left Party 8.8%, Christian People's Party 6.8%, Center Party 6.5%, Liberal Party 5.9%, other 3.1%; seats by party - Labor Party 61, Progress Party 38, Conservative Party 23, Socialist Left Party 15, Christian People's Party 11, Center Party 11, Liberal Party 10
note: for certain purposes, the parliament divides itself into two chambers and elects one-fourth of its membership in the Lagting and three-fourths of its membership in the Odelsting
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing Supreme Court or Hoyesterett (justices appointed by the monarch)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing Center Party [Aslaug Marie HAGA]; Christian People's Party [Dagfinn HOYBRATEN]; Conservative Party [Erna SOLBERG]; Labor Party [Jens STOLTENBERG]; Liberal Party [Lars SPONHEIM]; Progress Party [Siv JENSEN]; Socialist Left Party [Kristin HALVORSEN]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing Norwegian Aid Committee or NORWAC; Norwegian Association of the Disabled; Pure Salmon Campaign; The Consumer Council (consumer advocacy group)
other: environmental groups; media; reform movements
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing ADB (nonregional members), AfDB (nonregional members), Arctic Council, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EFTA, ESA, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM (guest), NATO, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, Schengen Convention, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMEE, UNMIS, UNRWA, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WEU (associate), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing chief of mission: Ambassador Wegger C. STROMMEN
chancery: 2720 34th Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 333-6000
FAX: [1] (202) 337-0870
consulate(s) general: Houston, Minneapolis, New York, San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing chief of mission: Ambassador Benson K. WHITNEY
embassy: Henrik Ibsens gate 48, 0244 Oslo; note - the embassy will move to Huseby in the near future
mailing address: PSC 69, Box 1000, APO AE 09707
telephone: [47] (22) 44 85 50
FAX: [47] (22) 44 33 63, 56 27 51
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing red with a blue cross outlined in white that extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)
   Economy    Norway
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing The Norwegian economy is a prosperous bastion of welfare capitalism, featuring a combination of free market activity and government intervention. The government controls key areas, such as the vital petroleum sector, through large-scale state enterprises. The country is richly endowed with natural resources - petroleum, hydropower, fish, forests, and minerals - and is highly dependent on its oil production and international oil prices, with oil and gas accounting for one-third of exports. Only Saudi Arabia and Russia export more oil than Norway. Norway opted to stay out of the EU during a referendum in November 1994; nonetheless, as a member of the European Economic Area, it contributes sizably to the EU budget. The government has moved ahead with privatization. Although Norwegian oil production peaked in 2000, natural gas production is still rising. Norwegians realize that once their gas production peaks they will eventually face declining oil and gas revenues; accordingly, Norway has been saving its oil-and-gas-boosted budget surpluses in a Government Petroleum Fund, which is invested abroad and now is valued at more than $250 billion. After lackluster growth of less than 1% in 2002-03, GDP growth picked up to 3-5% in 2004-07, partly due to higher oil prices. Norway's economy remains buoyant. Domestic economic activity is, and will continue to be, the main driver of growth, supported by high consumer confidence and strong investment spending in the offshore oil and gas sector. Norway's record high budget surplus and upswing in the labor market in 2007 highlight the strength of its economic position going into 2008.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $246.6 billion (2007 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
Definition Field Listing $391.5 billion (2007 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 3.7% (2007 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $53,300 (2007 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing agriculture: 2.4%
industry: 41.9%
services: 55.7% (2007 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 2.507 million (2007 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing agriculture: 4%
industry: 22%
services: 74% (1995)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 2.5% (2007 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing lowest 10%: 3.9%
highest 10%: 23.4% (2000)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing 28 (2005)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0.8% (2007 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 20.8% of GDP (2007 est.)
Definition Field Listing revenues: $226.3 billion
expenditures: $158.7 billion (2007 est.)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 83.1% of GDP (2007 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing barley, wheat, potatoes; pork, beef, veal, milk; fish
Definition Field Listing petroleum and gas, food processing, shipbuilding, pulp and paper products, metals, chemicals, timber, mining, textiles, fishing
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0.1% (2007 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 135.8 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 113.9 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing 15.7 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing 3.652 billion kWh (2005)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 2.56 million bbl/day (2007 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 228,400 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 3.018 million bbl/day (2004)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 91,930 bbl/day (2004)
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 7.705 billion bbl (1 January 2006 est.)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 83.44 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 5.342 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 78.1 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0 cu m (2005)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 2.288 trillion cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $64.07 billion (2007 est.)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $140.3 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing petroleum and petroleum products, machinery and equipment, metals, chemicals, ships, fish
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing UK 26.3%, Germany 12.3%, Netherlands 10.2%, France 8%, Sweden 6.5%, US 6.2% (2007)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $77.24 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing machinery and equipment, chemicals, metals, foodstuffs
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing Sweden 14.7%, Germany 13.6%, UK 6.9%, Denmark 6.4%, China 6.1%, US 4.8%, Canada 4.3% (2007)
Economic aid - donor:
Definition Field Listing ODA, $2.954 billion (2006)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $60.84 billion (2006 est.)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $469.1 billion; note - Norway is a net external creditor (30 June 2007)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $62.63 billion (2007 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $126.1 billion (2007 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $191 billion (2005)
Currency (code):
Definition Field Listing Norwegian krone (NOK)
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing Norwegian kroner per US dollar - 5.8396 (2007), 6.4117 (2006), 6.4425 (2005), 6.7408 (2004), 7.0802 (2003)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing calendar year
   Communications    Norway
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 1.988 million (2007)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 5.192 million (2007)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing general assessment: modern in all respects; one of the most advanced telecommunications networks in Europe
domestic: Norway has a domestic satellite system; moreover, the prevalence of rural areas encourages the wide use of cellular-mobile systems instead of fixed-wire systems
international: country code - 47; 2 buried coaxial cable systems; submarine cables provide links to other Nordic countries and Europe; satellite earth stations - NA Eutelsat, NA Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Norway shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and Sweden) (1999)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing AM 5, FM at least 650, shortwave 1 (1998)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing 360 (plus 2,729 repeaters) (1995)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing .no
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 2.084 million (2007)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 3.8 million (2007)
   Transportation    Norway
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 98 (2007)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing total: 67
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 12
1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
914 to 1,523 m: 13
under 914 m: 29 (2007)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing total: 31
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 25 (2007)
Definition Field Listing 1 (2007)
Definition Field Listing condensate 508 km; gas 6,529 km; oil 2,444 km; oil/gas/water 457 km (2007)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 4,114 km
standard gauge: 4,114 km 1.435-m gauge (2,552 km electrified) (2008)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 92,946 km
paved: 72,033 km (includes 664 km of expressways)
unpaved: 20,913 km (2007)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 1,577 km (2007)
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 698 ships (1000 GRT or over) 16,366,900 GRT/22,195,880 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 48, cargo 148, carrier 1, chemical tanker 136, combination ore/oil 12, container 5, liquefied gas 65, passenger/cargo 119, petroleum tanker 87, refrigerated cargo 14, roll on/roll off 12, specialized tanker 1, vehicle carrier 50
foreign-owned: 166 (Canada 10, Chile 2, China 41, Cyprus 2, Denmark 29, Estonia 1, Finland 1, France 3, Germany 2, Greece 3, Hong Kong 6, Iceland 3, Italy 4, Japan 1, Lithuania 1, Monaco 5, Netherlands 1, Poland 4, Saudi Arabia 3, Singapore 1, Sweden 30, UK 5, US 8)
registered in other countries: 960 (Antigua and Barbuda 5, Australia 1, Bahamas 229, Barbados 40, Belize 3, Bermuda 5, Brazil 2, Canada 3, Cayman Islands 1, China 1, Comoros 1, Cook Islands 5, Cyprus 17, Denmark 2, Dominica 1, Estonia 2, Faroe Islands 4, Finland 3, France 3, Gibraltar 31, Hong Kong 40, Isle of Man 23, Italy 2, Liberia 40, Libya 1, Malta 98, Marshall Islands 66, Mexico 1, Netherlands 9, Netherlands Antilles 5, Nigeria 1, Panama 70, Philippines 2, Portugal 2, Singapore 164, South Korea 4, Spain 8, St Vincent and the Grenadines 15, Sweden 7, Tuvalu 1, UK 30, US 9, unknown 3) (2008)
Ports and terminals:
Definition Field Listing Bergen, Borg Havn, Haugesund, Maaloy, Mongstad, Narvik, Oslo, Sture
   Military    Norway
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing Norwegian Army (Haeren), Royal Norwegian Navy (Kongelige Norske Sjoeforsvaret, RNoN; includes Coastal Rangers and Coast Guard (Kystvakt)), Royal Norwegian Air Force (Kongelige Norske Luftforsvaret, RNoAF), Home Guard (Heimevernet, HV) (2007)
Military service age and obligation:
Definition Field Listing 18-44 years of age for male compulsory military service; 16 years of age in wartime; 17 years of age for male volunteers; 18 years of age for women; 12-month service obligation, in practice shortened to 8 to 9 months; although all males between ages of 18 and 44 are liable for service, in practice they are seldom called to duty after age 30; reserve obligation to age 35-60; 16 years of age for volunteers to the Home Guard, who serve 6-month duty tours (2006)
Manpower available for military service:
Definition Field Listing males age 16-49: 1,078,181
females age 16-49: 1,046,550 (2008 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing males age 16-49: 888,101
females age 16-49: 862,159 (2008 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
Definition Field Listing male: 32,185
female: 30,683 (2008 est.)
Military expenditures:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 1.9% of GDP (2005 est.)
   Transnational Issues    Norway
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing Norway asserts a territorial claim in Antarctica (Queen Maud Land and its continental shelf); despite dialogue, Russia and Norway continue to dispute their maritime limits in the Barents Sea and Russia's fishing rights beyond Svalbard's territorial limits within the Svalbard Treaty zone

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Countries of the World - Detailed information about Norway -
Source : CIA's World Fact Book 2008

Since 2003, January 19