source : World Fact Book 2008 (October 2008)


   Introduction    Uzbekistan
Definition Field Listing Russia conquered Uzbekistan in the late 19th century. Stiff resistance to the Red Army after World War I was eventually suppressed and a socialist republic set up in 1924. During the Soviet era, intensive production of "white gold" (cotton) and grain led to overuse of agrochemicals and the depletion of water supplies, which have left the land poisoned and the Aral Sea and certain rivers half dry. Independent since 1991, the country seeks to gradually lessen its dependence on agriculture while developing its mineral and petroleum reserves. Current concerns include terrorism by Islamic militants, economic stagnation, and the curtailment of human rights and democratization.
   Geography    Uzbekistan
Definition Field Listing Central Asia, north of Afghanistan
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing 41 00 N, 64 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing Asia
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 447,400 sq km
land: 425,400 sq km
water: 22,000 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing slightly larger than California
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing total: 6,221 km
border countries: Afghanistan 137 km, Kazakhstan 2,203 km, Kyrgyzstan 1,099 km, Tajikistan 1,161 km, Turkmenistan 1,621 km
Definition Field Listing 0 km (doubly landlocked); note - Uzbekistan includes the southern portion of the Aral Sea with a 420 km shoreline
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing none (doubly landlocked)
Definition Field Listing mostly midlatitude desert, long, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid grassland in east
Definition Field Listing mostly flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes; broad, flat intensely irrigated river valleys along course of Amu Darya, Syr Darya (Sirdaryo), and Zarafshon; Fergana Valley in east surrounded by mountainous Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan; shrinking Aral Sea in west
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing lowest point: Sariqarnish Kuli -12 m
highest point: Adelunga Toghi 4,301 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing natural gas, petroleum, coal, gold, uranium, silver, copper, lead and zinc, tungsten, molybdenum
Land use:
Definition Field Listing arable land: 10.51%
permanent crops: 0.76%
other: 88.73% (2005)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing 42,810 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources:
Definition Field Listing 72.2 cu km (2003)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
Definition Field Listing total: 58.34 cu km/yr (5%/2%/93%)
per capita: 2,194 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing NA
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing shrinkage of the Aral Sea is resulting in growing concentrations of chemical pesticides and natural salts; these substances are then blown from the increasingly exposed lake bed and contribute to desertification; water pollution from industrial wastes and the heavy use of fertilizers and pesticides is the cause of many human health disorders; increasing soil salination; soil contamination from buried nuclear processing and agricultural chemicals, including DDT
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing along with Liechtenstein, one of the only two doubly landlocked countries in the world
   People    Uzbekistan
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 27,345,026 (July 2008 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing 0-14 years: 29% (male 4,047,918/female 3,870,346)
15-64 years: 66% (male 8,971,017/female 9,079,170)
65 years and over: 5% (male 588,498/female 788,077) (2008 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing total: 24.3 years
male: 23.8 years
female: 24.8 years (2008 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing 0.965% (2008 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 17.99 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 5.3 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order -3.04 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2008 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 24.23 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 28.61 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 19.58 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total population: 71.69 years
male: 68.69 years
female: 74.87 years (2008 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 2.01 children born/woman (2008 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order less than 0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 11,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order fewer than 500 (2003 est.)
Definition Field Listing noun: Uzbekistani
adjective: Uzbekistani
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing Uzbek 80%, Russian 5.5%, Tajik 5%, Kazakh 3%, Karakalpak 2.5%, Tatar 1.5%, other 2.5% (1996 est.)
Definition Field Listing Muslim 88% (mostly Sunnis), Eastern Orthodox 9%, other 3%
Definition Field Listing Uzbek 74.3%, Russian 14.2%, Tajik 4.4%, other 7.1%
Definition Field Listing definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.3%
male: 99.6%
female: 99% (2003 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
Definition Field Listing total: 11 years
male: 12 years
female: 11 years (2007)
Education expenditures:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 9.4% of GDP (1991)
   Government    Uzbekistan
Country name:
Definition Field Listing conventional long form: Republic of Uzbekistan
conventional short form: Uzbekistan
local long form: Ozbekiston Respublikasi
local short form: Ozbekiston
former: Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic
Government type:
Definition Field Listing republic; authoritarian presidential rule, with little power outside the executive branch
Definition Field Listing name: Tashkent (Toshkent)
geographic coordinates: 41 20 N, 69 18 E
time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing 12 provinces (viloyatlar, singular - viloyat), 1 autonomous republic* (respublika), and 1 city** (shahar); Andijon Viloyati, Buxoro Viloyati, Farg'ona Viloyati, Jizzax Viloyati, Namangan Viloyati, Navoiy Viloyati, Qashqadaryo Viloyati (Qarshi), Qoraqalpog'iston Respublikasi* (Nukus), Samarqand Viloyati, Sirdaryo Viloyati (Guliston), Surxondaryo Viloyati (Termiz), Toshkent Shahri**, Toshkent Viloyati, Xorazm Viloyati (Urganch)
note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)
Definition Field Listing 1 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing Independence Day, 1 September (1991)
Definition Field Listing adopted 8 December 1992
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Definition Field Listing 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing chief of state: President Islom KARIMOV (since 24 March 1990, when he was elected president by the then Supreme Soviet)
head of government: Prime Minister Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV (since 11 December 2003); First Deputy Prime Minister Rustam AZIMOV (since 2 January 2008)
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president with approval of the Supreme Assembly
elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (eligible for a second term; previously was a five-year term, extended by constitutional amendment in 2002); election last held 23 December 2007 (next to be held in 2014); prime minister, ministers, and deputy ministers appointed by the president
election results: Islom KARIMOV reelected president; percent of vote - Islom KARIMOV 88.1%, Aslidden RUSTAMOV 3.2%, Dilorom TASHMUKHAMEDOVA 2.9%, Akmal SAIDOV 2.6%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing bicameral Supreme Assembly or Oliy Majlis consists of an upper house or Senate (100 seats; 84 members are elected by regional governing councils and 16 appointed by the president; to serve five-year terms) and a lower house or Legislative Chamber (120 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 26 December 2004 and 9 January 2005 (next to be held December 2009)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; Legislative Chamber - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - LDPU 41, NDP 32, Fidokorlar 17, MTP 11, Adolat 9, unaffiliated 10
note: all parties in the Supreme Assembly support President KARIMOV
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing Supreme Court (judges are nominated by the president and confirmed by the Supreme Assembly)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing Adolat (Justice) Social Democratic Party [Dilorom TASHMUHAMMEDOVA]; Democratic National Rebirth Party (Milly Tiklanish) or MTP [Hurshid DOSMUHAMMEDOV]; Fidokorlar National Democratic Party (Self-Sacrificers) [Ahtam TURSUNOV]; Liberal Democratic Party of Uzbekistan or LDPU [Adham SHADMANOV; People's Democratic Party or NDP (formerly Communist Party) [Asliddin RUSTAMOV]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing Agrarian and Entrepreneurs' Party [Marat ZAHIDOV]; Birlik (Unity) Movement [Abdurakhim POLAT, chairman]; Committee for the Protection of Human Rights [Marat ZAHIDOV]; Erk (Freedom) Democratic Party [Muhammad SOLIH, chairman] (was banned 9 December 1992); Ezgulik Human Rights Society [Vasila INOYATOVA]; Free Farmers' Party or Ozod Dehqonlar [Nigora KHIDOYATOVA]; Human Rights Society of Uzbekistan [Talib YAKUBOV, chairman]; Independent Human Rights Organization of Uzbekistan [Mikhail ARDZINOV, chairman]; Mazlum; Sunshine Coalition [Sanjar UMAROV, chairman]
International organization participation:
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing chief of mission: Ambassador Abdulaziz KAMILOV
chancery: 1746 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 887-5300
FAX: [1] (202) 293-6804
consulate(s) general: New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing chief of mission: Ambassador Richard B. NORLAND
embassy: 3 Moyqo'rq'on, 5th Block, Yunusobod District, Tashkent 100093
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [998] (71) 120-5450
FAX: [998] (71) 120-6335
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and green separated by red fimbriations with a white crescent moon and 12 white stars in the upper hoist-side quadrant
   Economy    Uzbekistan
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing Uzbekistan is a dry, landlocked country of which 11% consists of intensely cultivated, irrigated river valleys. More than 60% of its population lives in densely populated rural communities. Uzbekistan is now the world's second-largest cotton exporter and fifth largest producer; it relies heavily on cotton production as the major source of export earnings. Other major export earners include gold, natural gas, and oil. Following independence in September 1991, the government sought to prop up its Soviet-style command economy with subsidies and tight controls on production and prices. While aware of the need to improve the investment climate, the government still sponsors measures that often increase, not decrease, its control over business decisions. A sharp increase in the inequality of income distribution has hurt the lower ranks of society since independence. In 2003, the government accepted Article VIII obligations under the IMF, providing for full currency convertibility. However, strict currency controls and tightening of borders have lessened the effects of convertibility and have also led to some shortages that have further stifled economic activity. The Central Bank often delays or restricts convertibility, especially for consumer goods. Potential investment by Russia and China in Uzbekistan's gas and oil industry may boost growth prospects. In November 2005, Russian President Vladimir PUTIN and Uzbekistan President KARIMOV signed an "alliance," which included provisions for economic and business cooperation. Russian businesses have shown increased interest in Uzbekistan, especially in mining, telecom, and oil and gas. In 2006, Uzbekistan took steps to rejoin the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and the Eurasian Economic Community (EurASEC), both organizations dominated by Russia. Uzbek authorities have accused US and other foreign companies operating in Uzbekistan of violating Uzbek tax laws and have frozen their assets.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $64.4 billion (2007 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
Definition Field Listing $22.31 billion (2007 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 9.5% (2007 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $2,400 (2007 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing agriculture: 29.4%
industry: 33.1%
services: 37.5% (2007 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 14.6 million (2007 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing agriculture: 44%
industry: 20%
services: 36% (1995)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0.8% officially by the Ministry of Labor, plus another 20% underemployed (2007 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing 33% (2004 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing lowest 10%: 2.8%
highest 10%: 29.6% (2003)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing 36.8 (2003)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 12% officially, but 38% based on analysis of consumer prices (2007 est.)
Definition Field Listing revenues: $6.478 billion
expenditures: $6.5 billion (2007 est.)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 18.7% of GDP (2007 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing cotton, vegetables, fruits, grain; livestock
Definition Field Listing textiles, food processing, machine building, metallurgy, gold, petroleum, natural gas, chemicals
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 12.1% (2007 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 49 billion kWh (2006 est.)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 47 billion kWh (2006 est.)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing 6.8 billion kWh (2006)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing 10.5 billion kWh (2006 est.)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 109,400 bbl/day (2007 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 155,000 bbl/day (2005)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 6,941 bbl/day (2004)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 11,230 bbl/day (2004)
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 594 million bbl (1 January 2006 est.)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 62.5 billion cu m (2006 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 48.4 billion cu m (2006 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 12.5 billion cu m (2006 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0 cu m (2005)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 1.798 trillion cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $4.615 billion (2007 est.)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $8.05 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing cotton, gold, energy products, mineral fertilizers, ferrous and non-ferrous metals, textiles, food products, machinery, automobiles
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing Russia 24.6%, Poland 10.4%, Turkey 9.2%, Kazakhstan 6%, Hungary 5.9%, China 5.4%, Ukraine 4.7%, Bangladesh 4.4% (2007)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $4.48 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, ferrous and non-ferrous metals
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing Russia 25.8%, China 14.3%, South Korea 13.7%, Germany 6.7%, Kazakhstan 6.6%, Ukraine 4.3%, Turkey 4.2% (2007)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing $172.3 million from the US (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $6.75 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $3.927 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $NA
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $NA
Market value of publicly traded shares:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $36.89 million (2005)
Currency (code):
Definition Field Listing soum (UZS)
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing Uzbekistani soum per US dollar - 1,263.8 (2007), 1,219.8 (2006), 1,020 (2005), 971.265 (2004), 771.029 (2003)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing calendar year
   Communications    Uzbekistan
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 1.793 million (2005)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 5.8 million (2007)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing general assessment: antiquated and inadequate; in serious need of modernization
domestic: the main line telecommunications system is dilapidated and telephone density is low; the state-owned telecommunications company, Uzbektelecom, is working on improving main line services; mobile services are growing swiftly, with the subscriber base more than doubling in 2007 to 5.8 million
international: country code - 998; linked by landline or microwave radio relay with CIS member states and to other countries by leased connection via the Moscow international gateway switch; after the completion of the Uzbek link to the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic cable, Uzbekistan will be independent of Russian facilities for international communications (2006)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing AM 4, FM 6, shortwave 3 (2006)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing 28 (includes 1 cable rebroadcaster in Tashkent and approximately 20 stations in regional capitals) (2006)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing .uz
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 11,832 (2007)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 1.2 million (2007)
   Transportation    Uzbekistan
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 54 (2007)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing total: 33
over 3,047 m: 6
2,438 to 3,047 m: 13
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 4 (2007)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing total: 21
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
under 914 m: 19 (2007)
Definition Field Listing gas 9,725 km; oil 868 km (2007)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 3,950 km
broad gauge: 3,950 km 1.520-m gauge (620 km electrified) (2006)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 81,600 km
paved: 71,237 km
unpaved: 10,363 km (1999)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 1,100 km (2006)
Ports and terminals:
Definition Field Listing Termiz (Amu Darya)
   Military    Uzbekistan
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing Army, Air and Air Defense Forces, National Guard
Military service age and obligation:
Definition Field Listing 18 years of age for compulsory military service; 1-year conscript service obligation; moving toward a professional military, but conscription will continue; the military cannot accomodate everyone who wishes to enlist, and competition for entrance into the military is similar to the competition for admission to universities (2007)
Manpower available for military service:
Definition Field Listing males age 16-49: 7,480,484
females age 16-49: 7,542,017 (2008 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing males age 16-49: 5,684,540
females age 16-49: 6,432,976 (2008 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
Definition Field Listing male: 324,094
female: 323,923 (2008 est.)
Military expenditures:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 2% of GDP (2005 est.)
   Transnational Issues    Uzbekistan
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing prolonged drought and cotton monoculture in Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan creates water-sharing difficulties for Amu Darya river states; field demarcation of the boundaries with Kazakhstan commenced in 2004; border delimitation of 130 km of border with Kyrgyzstan is hampered by serious disputes around enclaves and other areas
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
Definition Field Listing refugees (country of origin): 39,202 (Tajikistan); 1,060 (Afghanistan)
IDPs: 3,400 (forced population transfers by government from villages near Tajikistan border) (2007)
Trafficking in persons:
Definition Field Listing current situation: Uzbekistan is a source country for women and girls trafficked to Kazakhstan, Russia, Middle East, and Asia for the purpose of commercial sexual exploitation; men are trafficked to Kazakhstan and Russia for purposes of forced labor in the construction, cotton, and tobacco industries; men and women are also trafficked internally for the purposes of domestic servitude, forced labor in the agricultural and construction industries, and for commercial sexual exploitation
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Uzbekistan is on the Tier 2 Watch List for its failure to provide evidence of increasing efforts to combat severe forms of trafficking in 2007; the government did not amend its criminal code to increase penalties for convicted traffickers; in March 2008, Uzbekistan adopted ILO Conventions on minimum age of employment and on the elimination of the worst forms of child labor and is working with the ILO on implementation; the government also demonstrated its increasing commitment to combat trafficking in March 2008 by adopting a comprehensive anti-trafficking law; Uzbekistan has not ratified the 2000 UN TIP Protocol (2008)
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing transit country for Afghan narcotics bound for Russian and, to a lesser extent, Western European markets; limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and small amounts of opium poppy for domestic consumption; poppy cultivation almost wiped out by government crop eradication program; transit point for heroin precursor chemicals bound for Afghanistan

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Source : CIA's World Fact Book 2008

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