Peru

source : World Fact Book 2008 (October 2008)

SEE UPDATED INFORMATION HERE

   Introduction    Peru
Background:
Definition Field Listing Ancient Peru was the seat of several prominent Andean civilizations, most notably that of the Incas whose empire was captured by the Spanish conquistadors in 1533. Peruvian independence was declared in 1821, and remaining Spanish forces defeated in 1824. After a dozen years of military rule, Peru returned to democratic leadership in 1980, but experienced economic problems and the growth of a violent insurgency. President Alberto FUJIMORI's election in 1990 ushered in a decade that saw a dramatic turnaround in the economy and significant progress in curtailing guerrilla activity. Nevertheless, the president's increasing reliance on authoritarian measures and an economic slump in the late 1990s generated mounting dissatisfaction with his regime, which led to his ouster in 2000. A caretaker government oversaw new elections in the spring of 2001, which ushered in Alejandro TOLEDO as the new head of government - Peru's first democratically elected president of Native American ethnicity. The presidential election of 2006 saw the return of Alan GARCIA who, after a disappointing presidential term from 1985 to 1990, returned to the presidency with promises to improve social conditions and maintain fiscal responsibility.
   Geography    Peru
Location:
Definition Field Listing Western South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean, between Chile and Ecuador
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing 10 00 S, 76 00 W
Map references:
Definition Field Listing South America
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 1,285,220 sq km
land: 1.28 million sq km
water: 5,220 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing slightly smaller than Alaska
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing total: 7,461 km
border countries: Bolivia 1,075 km, Brazil 2,995 km, Chile 171 km, Colombia 1,800 km, Ecuador 1,420 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing 2,414 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing territorial sea: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm
Climate:
Definition Field Listing varies from tropical in east to dry desert in west; temperate to frigid in Andes
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing western coastal plain (costa), high and rugged Andes in center (sierra), eastern lowland jungle of Amazon Basin (selva)
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Nevado Huascaran 6,768 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing copper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber, fish, iron ore, coal, phosphate, potash, hydropower, natural gas
Land use:
Definition Field Listing arable land: 2.88%
permanent crops: 0.47%
other: 96.65% (2005)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing 12,000 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources:
Definition Field Listing 1,913 cu km (2000)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
Definition Field Listing total: 20.13 cu km/yr (8%/10%/82%)
per capita: 720 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing earthquakes, tsunamis, flooding, landslides, mild volcanic activity
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing deforestation (some the result of illegal logging); overgrazing of the slopes of the costa and sierra leading to soil erosion; desertification; air pollution in Lima; pollution of rivers and coastal waters from municipal and mining wastes
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake, with Bolivia; a remote slope of Nevado Mismi, a 5,316 m peak, is the ultimate source of the Amazon River
   People    Peru
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 29,180,900 (July 2008 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing 0-14 years: 29.7% (male 4,409,227/female 4,253,836)
15-64 years: 64.7% (male 9,501,597/female 9,381,139)
65 years and over: 5.6% (male 770,389/female 864,711) (2008 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing total: 25.8 years
male: 25.5 years
female: 26.1 years (2008 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing 1.264% (2008 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 19.77 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 6.16 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order -0.97 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2008 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 29.53 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 32.02 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 26.93 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total population: 70.44 years
male: 68.61 years
female: 72.37 years (2008 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 2.42 children born/woman (2008 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0.5% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 82,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 4,200 (2003 est.)
Major infectious diseases:
Definition Field Listing degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: dengue fever, malaria, Oroya fever, and yellow fever
water contact disease: leptospirosis (2008)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing noun: Peruvian(s)
adjective: Peruvian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing Amerindian 45%, mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 37%, white 15%, black, Japanese, Chinese, and other 3%
Religions:
Definition Field Listing Roman Catholic 81%, Seventh Day Adventist 1.4%, other Christian 0.7%, other 0.6%, unspecified or none 16.3% (2003 est.)
Languages:
Definition Field Listing Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara, and a large number of minor Amazonian languages
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 87.7%
male: 93.5%
female: 82.1% (2004 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
Definition Field Listing total: 14 years
male: 14 years
female: 14 years (2006)
Education expenditures:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 2.5% of GDP (2006)
   Government    Peru
Country name:
Definition Field Listing conventional long form: Republic of Peru
conventional short form: Peru
local long form: Republica del Peru
local short form: Peru
Government type:
Definition Field Listing constitutional republic
Capital:
Definition Field Listing name: Lima
geographic coordinates: 12 03 S, 77 03 W
time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing 25 regions (regiones, singular - region) and 1 province* (provincia); Amazonas, Ancash, Apurimac, Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Callao, Cusco, Huancavelica, Huanuco, Ica, Junin, La Libertad, Lambayeque, Lima, Lima*, Loreto, Madre de Dios, Moquegua, Pasco, Piura, Puno, San Martin, Tacna, Tumbes, Ucayali
Independence:
Definition Field Listing 28 July 1821 (from Spain)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing Independence Day, 28 July (1821)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing 29 December 1993
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing based on civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing 18 years of age; universal and compulsory until the age of 70; note - for the first time in recent elections, members of the military and national police were eligible to vote in the 2006 elections
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing chief of state: President Alan GARCIA Perez (since 28 July 2006); First Vice President Luis GIAMPIETRI Rojas; Second Vice President Lourdes MENDOZA del Solar (since 28 July 2006); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Alan GARCIA Perez (since 28 July 2006); First Vice President Luis GIAMPIETRI Rojas; Second Vice President Lourdes MENDOZA del Solar (since 28 July 2006)
note: Prime Minister Jorge DEL CASTILLO Galvez (since 28 August 2006) does not exercise executive power; this power is in the hands of the president
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a nonconsecutive reelection); presidential and congressional elections held 9 April 2006 with runoff election held 4 June 2006; next to be held in April 2011
election results: Alan GARCIA elected president in runoff election; percent of vote - Alan GARCIA 52.5%, Ollanta HUMALA Tasso 47.5%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing unicameral Congress of the Republic of Peru or Congreso de la Republica del Peru (120 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 9 April 2006 (next to be held in April 2011)
election results: percent of vote by party - UPP 21.2%, PAP 20.6%, UN 15.3%, AF 13.1%, FC 7.1%, PP 4.1%, RN 4.0%, other 14.6%; seats by party - UPP 45, PAP 36, UN 17, AF 13, FC 5, PP 2, RN 2
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (judges are appointed by the National Council of the Judiciary)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing Alliance For Progress (Alianza Para El Progreso) [Cesar ACUNA Peralta]; Alliance For The Future (Alianza Por El Futuro) or AF (a coalition of pro-FUJIMORI parties including Cambio 90, Nueva Mayoria, and Si Cumple); Centrist Front (Frente Del Centro) or FC (a coalition of Accion Popular, Somos Peru, and Coordinadora Nacional de Independientes); Independent Moralizing Front (Frente Independiente Moralizador) or FIM; National Renovation Party (Partido Renovacion Nacional) [Rafael REY]; National Restoration (Restauracion Nacional) or RN [Humberto LAY Sun]; National Unity (Unidad Nacional) or UN (a coalition of Partido Popular Cristiano and Partido Solidaridad Nacional) [Lourdes FLORES Nano]; Peru Possible (Peru Posible) or PP [Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique]; Peruvian Aprista Party (Partido Aprista Peruano) or PAP [Alan GARCIA] (also referred to by its original name Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana or APRA); Peruvian Nationalist Party (Partido Nacionalista Peruano) or PNP [Ollanta HUMALA Tasso]; Union for Peru (Union por el Peru) or UPP [Aldo ESTRADA Choque]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing Shining Path [Abimael GUZMAN Reynoso (imprisoned), Gabriel MACARIO (top leader at-large)] (leftist guerrilla group); Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement or MRTA [Victor POLAY (imprisoned), Hugo AVALLENEDA Valdez (top leader at-large)] (leftist guerrilla group)
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing APEC, CAN, FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, MINUSTAH, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMEE, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing chief of mission: Ambassador Felipe ORTIZ de Zevallos
chancery: 1700 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 833-9860 through 9869
FAX: [1] (202) 659-8124
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Denver, Hartford, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Paterson (New Jersey), San Francisco, Washington, DC
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing chief of mission: Ambassador P. Michael MCKINLEY
embassy: Avenida La Encalada, Cuadra 17s/n, Surco, Lima 33
mailing address: P. O. Box 1995, Lima 1; American Embassy (Lima), APO AA 34031-5000
telephone: [51] (1) 434-3000
FAX: [51] (1) 618-2397
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), white, and red with the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a shield bearing a vicuna, cinchona tree (the source of quinine), and a yellow cornucopia spilling out gold coins, all framed by a green wreath
   Economy    Peru
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing Peru's economy reflects its varied geography - an arid coastal region, the Andes further inland, and tropical lands bordering Colombia and Brazil. Abundant mineral resources are found in the mountainous areas, and Peru's coastal waters provide excellent fishing grounds. However, overdependence on minerals and metals subjects the economy to fluctuations in world prices, and a lack of infrastructure deters trade and investment. After several years of inconsistent economic performance, the Peruvian economy grew by more than 4% per year during the period 2002-06, with a stable exchange rate and low inflation. Growth jumped to 7.5% in 2007, driven by higher world prices for minerals and metals. Risk premiums on Peruvian bonds on secondary markets reached historically low levels in late 2004, reflecting investor optimism regarding the government's prudent fiscal policies and openness to trade and investment. Despite the strong macroeconomic performance, underemployment and poverty have stayed persistently high. Growth prospects depend on exports of minerals, textiles, and agricultural products, and by expectations for the Camisea natural gas megaproject and for other promising energy projects. Upon taking office, President GARCIA announced Sierra Exportadora, a program aimed at promoting economic growth in Peru's southern and central highlands.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $219.6 billion (2007 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
Definition Field Listing $109.1 billion (2007 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 9% (2007 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $7,600 (2007 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing agriculture: 8.4%
industry: 25.6%
services: 66% (2007 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 9.839 million (2007 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing agriculture: 9%
industry: 18%
services: 73% (2001)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 6.9% in metropolitan Lima; widespread underemployment (2007 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing 44.5% (2006)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing lowest 10%: 1.3%
highest 10%: 40.9% (2003)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing 52 (2003)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 1.8% (2007 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 23% of GDP (2007 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing revenues: $32.54 billion
expenditures: $29.15 billion (2007 est.)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 29.2% of GDP (2007 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing asparagus, coffee, cotton, sugarcane, rice, potatoes, corn, plantains, grapes, oranges, coca; poultry, beef, dairy products; fish, guinea pigs
Industries:
Definition Field Listing mining and refining of minerals; steel, metal fabrication; petroleum extraction and refining, natural gas; fishing and fish processing, textiles, clothing, food processing
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 9.8% (2007 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 24.97 billion kWh (2005 est.)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 22.59 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing 0 kWh (2005)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing 0 kWh (2005)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 119,000 bbl/day (2007 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 166,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 53,040 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 121,500 bbl/day (2004)
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 430.8 million bbl (1 January 2007 est.)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 1.515 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 1.515 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0 cu m (2005)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 236.9 billion cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $1.516 billion (2007 est.)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $27.96 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing copper, gold, zinc, crude petroleum and petroleum products, coffee, potatoes, asparagus, textiles, guinea pigs
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing US 18.5%, China 12.1%, Switzerland 8.1%, Canada 7.2%, Japan 7.1%, Chile 5.6% (2007)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $19.6 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing petroleum and petroleum products, plastics, machinery, vehicles, iron and steel, wheat, paper
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing US 20.1%, China 10.6%, Brazil 9.8%, Ecuador 6%, Colombia 5.9%, Argentina 5.2%, Chile 4.9%, Mexico 4.2% (2007)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing $397.8 million (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $27.78 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $32.83 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $24.72 billion (2007 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $1.476 billion (2007 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $59.66 billion (2006)
Currency (code):
Definition Field Listing nuevo sol (PEN)
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing nuevo sol per US dollar - 3.1731 (2007), 3.2742 (2006), 3.2958 (2005), 3.4132 (2004), 3.4785 (2003)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing calendar year
   Communications    Peru
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 2.673 million (2007)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 15.417 million (2007)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing general assessment: adequate for most requirements
domestic: fixed-line teledensity is only about 8 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity, spurred by competition among multiple providers, has increased to about 30 telephones per 100 persons; nationwide microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system with 12 earth stations
international: country code - 51; the South America-1 (SAM-1) and Pan American (PAN-AM) submarine cable systems provide links to parts of Central and South America, the Caribbean, and US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing AM 472, FM 198, shortwave 189 (1999)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing 13 (plus 112 repeaters) (1997)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing .pe
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 270,193 (2007)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 7.636 million (2007)
   Transportation    Peru
Airports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 237 (2007)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing total: 54
over 3,047 m: 6
2,438 to 3,047 m: 20
1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
914 to 1,523 m: 11
under 914 m: 3 (2007)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing total: 183
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 24
914 to 1,523 m: 40
under 914 m: 117 (2007)
Heliports:
Definition Field Listing 1 (2007)
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing gas 1,181 km; gas/liquid petroleum gas 61 km; liquid natural gas 106 km; liquid petroleum gas 517 km; oil 1,749 km; refined products 13 km (2007)
Railways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 1,989 km
standard gauge: 1,726 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 263 km 0.914-m gauge (2006)
Roadways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 78,829 km
paved: 11,351 km (includes 276 km of expressways)
unpaved: 67,478 km (2004)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 8,808 km
note: 8,600 km of navigable tributaries of Amazon system and 208 km of Lago Titicaca (2007)
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 6 ships (1000 GRT or over) 76,220 GRT/119,615 DWT
by type: cargo 3, petroleum tanker 3
foreign-owned: 1 (Bahamas 1)
registered in other countries: 18 (Belize 1, Panama 17) (2008)
Ports and terminals:
Definition Field Listing Callao, Iquitos, Matarani, Paita, Pucallpa, Yurimaguas; note - Iquitos, Pucallpa, and Yurimaguas are on the upper reaches of the Amazon and its tributaries
   Military    Peru
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing Peruvian Army (Ejercito Peruano), Peruvian Navy (Marina de Guerra del Peru, MGP (includes naval air, naval infantry, and coast guard)), Peruvian Air Force (Fuerza Aerea del Peru, FAP) (2008)
Military service age and obligation:
Definition Field Listing 18-30 years of age for voluntary male and female military service; no conscription (2008)
Manpower available for military service:
Definition Field Listing males age 16-49: 7,653,898
females age 16-49: 7,531,329 (2008 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing males age 16-49: 5,796,449
females age 16-49: 6,217,524 (2008 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
Definition Field Listing male: 306,260
female: 296,819 (2008 est.)
Military expenditures:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 1.5% of GDP (2006)
   Transnational Issues    Peru
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing Chile and Ecuador rejected Peru's November 2005 unilateral legislation to shift the axis of their joint treaty-defined maritime boundaries along the parallels of latitude to equidistance lines which favor Peru; organized illegal narcotics operations in Colombia have penetrated Peru's shared border; Peru rejects Bolivia's claim to restore maritime access through a sovereign corridor through Chile along the Peruvian border
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
Definition Field Listing IDPs: 60,000-150,000 (civil war from 1980-2000; most IDPs are indigenous peasants in Andean and Amazonian regions) (2007)
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing until 1996 the world's largest coca leaf producer, Peru is now the world's second largest producer of coca leaf, though it lags far behind Colombia; cultivation of coca in Peru rose to 37,000 hectares in 2006; second largest producer of cocaine, estimated at 245 metric tons potential pure cocaine in 2006; finished cocaine is shipped out from Pacific ports to the international drug market; increasing amounts of base and finished cocaine, however, are being moved to Brazil, Chile, Argentina, and Bolivia for use in the Southern Cone or transshipment to Europe and Africa; increasing domestic drug consumption


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Source : CIA's World Fact Book 2008

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