Madagascar

source : World Fact Book 2008 (October 2008)

SEE UPDATED INFORMATION HERE

   Introduction    Madagascar
Background:
Definition Field Listing Formerly an independent kingdom, Madagascar became a French colony in 1896 but regained independence in 1960. During 1992-93, free presidential and National Assembly elections were held ending 17 years of single-party rule. In 1997, in the second presidential race, Didier RATSIRAKA, the leader during the 1970s and 1980s, was returned to the presidency. The 2001 presidential election was contested between the followers of Didier RATSIRAKA and Marc RAVALOMANANA, nearly causing secession of half of the country. In April 2002, the High Constitutional Court announced RAVALOMANANA the winner. RAVALOMANANA is now in his second term following a landslide victory in the generally free and fair presidential elections of 2006.
   Geography    Madagascar
Location:
Definition Field Listing Southern Africa, island in the Indian Ocean, east of Mozambique
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing 20 00 S, 47 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing Africa
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 587,040 sq km
land: 581,540 sq km
water: 5,500 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing slightly less than twice the size of Arizona
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing 0 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing 4,828 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or 100 nm from the 2,500-m isobath
Climate:
Definition Field Listing tropical along coast, temperate inland, arid in south
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing narrow coastal plain, high plateau and mountains in center
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Maromokotro 2,876 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing graphite, chromite, coal, bauxite, salt, quartz, tar sands, semiprecious stones, mica, fish, hydropower
Land use:
Definition Field Listing arable land: 5.03%
permanent crops: 1.02%
other: 93.95% (2005)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing 10,860 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources:
Definition Field Listing 337 cu km (1984)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
Definition Field Listing total: 14.96 cu km/yr (3%/2%/96%)
per capita: 804 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing periodic cyclones, drought, and locust infestation
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing soil erosion results from deforestation and overgrazing; desertification; surface water contaminated with raw sewage and other organic wastes; several endangered species of flora and fauna unique to the island
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing world's fourth-largest island; strategic location along Mozambique Channel
   People    Madagascar
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 20,042,552 (July 2008 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing 0-14 years: 43.7% (male 4,408,615/female 4,349,862)
15-64 years: 53.2% (male 5,298,805/female 5,371,764)
65 years and over: 3.1% (male 275,087/female 338,418) (2008 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing total: 17.9 years
male: 17.7 years
female: 18.1 years (2008 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing 3.005% (2008 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 38.38 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 8.32 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order NA (2008 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2008 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 55.59 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 60.59 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 50.45 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total population: 62.52 years
male: 60.58 years
female: 64.51 years (2008 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 5.19 children born/woman (2008 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 1.7% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 140,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 7,500 (2003 est.)
Major infectious diseases:
Definition Field Listing degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: chikungunya, malaria, and plague
water contact disease: schistosomiasis (2008)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing noun: Malagasy (singular and plural)
adjective: Malagasy
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing Malayo-Indonesian (Merina and related Betsileo), Cotiers (mixed African, Malayo-Indonesian, and Arab ancestry - Betsimisaraka, Tsimihety, Antaisaka, Sakalava), French, Indian, Creole, Comoran
Religions:
Definition Field Listing indigenous beliefs 52%, Christian 41%, Muslim 7%
Languages:
Definition Field Listing English (official), French (official), Malagasy (official)
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 68.9%
male: 75.5%
female: 62.5% (2003 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
Definition Field Listing total: 9 years
male: 10 years
female: 9 years (2006)
Education expenditures:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 3.1% of GDP (2006)
   Government    Madagascar
Country name:
Definition Field Listing conventional long form: Republic of Madagascar
conventional short form: Madagascar
local long form: Republique de Madagascar/Repoblikan'i Madagasikara
local short form: Madagascar/Madagasikara
former: Malagasy Republic
Government type:
Definition Field Listing republic
Capital:
Definition Field Listing name: Antananarivo
geographic coordinates: 18 55 S, 47 31 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing 6 provinces (faritany); Antananarivo, Antsiranana, Fianarantsoa, Mahajanga, Toamasina, Toliara
Independence:
Definition Field Listing 26 June 1960 (from France)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing Independence Day, 26 June (1960)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing 19 August 1992 by national referendum
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing based on French civil law system and traditional Malagasy law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing chief of state: President Marc RAVALOMANANA (since 6 May 2002)
head of government: Prime Minister Charles RABEMANANJARA (25 January 2007)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 3 December 2006 (next to be held in December 2011); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: percent of vote - Marc RAVALOMANANA 54.8%, Jean LAHINIRIKO 11.7%, Roland RATSIRAKA 10.1%, Herizo RAZAFIMAHALEO 9.1%, Norbert RATSIRAHONANA 4.2%, Ny Hasina ANDRIAMANJATO 4.2%, Elia RAVELOMANANTSOA 2.6%, Pety RAKOTONIAINA 1.7%, other 1.6%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing bicameral legislature consists of a National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (127 seats - reduced from 160 seats by an April 2007 national referendum; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) and a Senate or Senat (100 seats; two-thirds of the seats filled by regional assemblies; the remaining one-third of seats appointed by the president; to serve four-year terms)
elections: National Assembly - last held 23 September 2007 (next to be held in 2011)
election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - TIM 106, LEADER/Fanilo 1, independents 20
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing Supreme Court or Cour Supreme; High Constitutional Court or Haute Cour Constitutionnelle
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing Association for the Rebirth of Madagascar or AREMA [Pierrot RAJAONARIVELO]; Democratic Party for Union in Madagascar or PSDUM [Jean LAHINIRIKO]; Economic Liberalism and Democratic Action for National Recovery or LEADER/Fanilo [Herizo RAZAFIMAHALEO]; Fihaonana Party or FP [Guy-Willy RAZANAMASY]; I Love Madagascar or TIM [Marc RAVALOMANANA]; Renewal of the Social Democratic Party or RPSD [Evariste MARSON]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing Committee for the Defense of Truth and Justice or KMMR; Committee for National Reconciliation or CRN [Albert Zafy]; National Council of Christian Churches or FFKM
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing ACP, AfDB, AU, COMESA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, InOC, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, OIF, OPCW, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing chief of mission: Ambassador Jocelyn Bertin RADIFERA
chancery: 2374 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 265-5525, 5526
FAX: [1] (202) 265-3034
consulate(s) general: New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing chief of mission: Ambassador R. Niels MARQUARDT
embassy: 14-16 Rue Rainitovo, Antsahavola, Antananarivo 101
mailing address: B. P. 620, Antsahavola, Antananarivo
telephone: [261] (20) 22-212-57, 22-212-73, 22-209-56
FAX: [261] (20) 22-345-39
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green with a vertical white band of the same width on hoist side
   Economy    Madagascar
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing Having discarded past socialist economic policies, Madagascar has since the mid 1990s followed a World Bank- and IMF-led policy of privatization and liberalization. This strategy placed the country on a slow and steady growth path from an extremely low level. Agriculture, including fishing and forestry, is a mainstay of the economy, accounting for more than one-fourth of GDP and employing 80% of the population. Exports of apparel have boomed in recent years primarily due to duty-free access to the US. Deforestation and erosion, aggravated by the use of firewood as the primary source of fuel, are serious concerns. President RAVALOMANANA has worked aggressively to revive the economy following the 2002 political crisis, which triggered a 12% drop in GDP that year. Poverty reduction and combating corruption will be the centerpieces of economic policy for the next few years.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $18.44 billion (2007 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
Definition Field Listing $7.322 billion (2007 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 6.3% (2007 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $900 (2007 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing agriculture: 26.8%
industry: 15.8%
services: 57.4% (2007 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 7.3 million (2000)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing 50% (2004 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing lowest 10%: 1.9%
highest 10%: 36.6% (2001)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing 47.5 (2001)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 10.3% (2007 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 25.9% of GDP (2007 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing revenues: $1.319 billion
expenditures: $1.629 billion (2007 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing coffee, vanilla, sugarcane, cloves, cocoa, rice, cassava (tapioca), beans, bananas, peanuts; livestock products
Industries:
Definition Field Listing meat processing, seafood, soap, breweries, tanneries, sugar, textiles, glassware, cement, automobile assembly plant, paper, petroleum, tourism
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 6% (2007 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 1.046 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 973.2 million kWh (2005)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing 0 kWh (2005)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing 0 kWh (2005)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 92.18 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 17,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 363.9 bbl/day (2004)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 17,830 bbl/day (2004)
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0 bbl (1 January 2006 est.)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0 cu m (2005)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0 cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order -$890 million (2007 est.)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $986 million f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing coffee, vanilla, shellfish, sugar, cotton cloth, chromite, petroleum products
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing France 31.8%, US 26.6%, Germany 6.1%, UK 4.9%, Italy 4.4% (2007)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $1.918 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing capital goods, petroleum, consumer goods, food
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing France 13.6%, China 13.1%, Iran 8.2%, South Africa 6.4%, Mauritius 5.1%, Hong Kong 4.9% (2007)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing $929.2 million (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $846.7 million (31 December 2007 est.)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $4.6 billion (2002)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $NA
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $NA
Market value of publicly traded shares:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $NA
Currency (code):
Definition Field Listing ariary (MGA)
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing Malagasy ariary per US dollar - 1,880 (2007), 2,161.4 (2006), 2,003 (2005), 1,868.9 (2004), 1,238.3 (2003)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing calendar year
   Communications    Madagascar
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 133,900 (2007)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 2.218 million (2007)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing general assessment: system is above average for the region; Antananarivo's main telephone exchange modernized in the late 1990s, but the rest of the analogue-based telephone system is poorly developed; have added more than 50,000 new fixed lines since 2005
domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile telephone density only about 12 per 100 persons
international: country code - 261; submarine cable to Bahrain; satellite earth stations - 2 (1 Intelsat - Indian Ocean, 1 Intersputnik - Atlantic Ocean region) (2007)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing AM 2 (plus a number of repeater stations), FM 9, shortwave 6 (2001)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing 1 (plus 36 repeaters) (2001)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing .mg
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 9,734 (2007)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 110,000 (2006)
   Transportation    Madagascar
Airports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 104 (2007)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing total: 27
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 17
under 914 m: 1 (2007)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing total: 77
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 41
under 914 m: 34 (2007)
Railways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 854 km
narrow gauge: 854 km 1.000-m gauge (2006)
Roadways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 49,827 km
paved: 5,780 km
unpaved: 44,047 km (2000)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 600 km (2006)
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 9 ships (1000 GRT or over) 13,896 GRT/18,466 DWT
by type: cargo 5, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 2 (2008)
Ports and terminals:
Definition Field Listing Antsiranana, Mahajanga, Toamasina, Toliara
   Military    Madagascar
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing People's Armed Forces: Intervention Force, Development Force, and Aeronaval Force (navy and air); National Gendarmerie
Military service age and obligation:
Definition Field Listing 18-25 years of age for male-only compulsory military service; 18-month conscript service obligation (either military or equivalent civil service); 20-30 years of age for National Gendarmerie recruits (35 years of age for those with military experience) (2008)
Manpower available for military service:
Definition Field Listing males age 16-49: 4,443,341
females age 16-49: 4,441,124 (2008 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing males age 16-49: 3,034,600
females age 16-49: 3,271,732 (2008 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
Definition Field Listing male: 230,088
female: 229,932 (2008 est.)
Military expenditures:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 1% of GDP (2006)
   Transnational Issues    Madagascar
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing claims Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands, and Juan de Nova Island (all administered by France)
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing illicit producer of cannabis (cultivated and wild varieties) used mostly for domestic consumption; transshipment point for heroin


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Source : CIA's World Fact Book 2008

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