Guinea

source : World Fact Book 2008 (October 2008)

SEE UPDATED INFORMATION HERE

   Introduction    Guinea
Background:
Definition Field Listing Guinea has had only two presidents since gaining its independence from France in 1958. Lansana CONTE came to power in 1984 when the military seized the government after the death of the first president, Sekou TOURE. Guinea did not hold democratic elections until 1993 when Gen. CONTE (head of the military government) was elected president of the civilian government. He was reelected in 1998 and again in 2003, though all the polls have been marred by irregularities. Guinea has maintained its internal stability despite spillover effects from conflict in Sierra Leone and Liberia. As those countries have rebuilt, Guinea's own vulnerability to political and economic crisis has increased. Declining economic conditions and popular dissatisfaction with corruption and bad governance prompted two massive strikes in 2006; a third nationwide strike in early 2007 sparked violent protests in many Guinean cities and prompted two weeks of martial law. To appease the unions and end the unrest, CONTE named a new prime minister in March 2007.
   Geography    Guinea
Location:
Definition Field Listing Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Guinea-Bissau and Sierra Leone
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing 11 00 N, 10 00 W
Map references:
Definition Field Listing Africa
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 245,857 sq km
land: 245,857 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing slightly smaller than Oregon
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing total: 3,399 km
border countries: Cote d'Ivoire 610 km, Guinea-Bissau 386 km, Liberia 563 km, Mali 858 km, Senegal 330 km, Sierra Leone 652 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing 320 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate:
Definition Field Listing generally hot and humid; monsoonal-type rainy season (June to November) with southwesterly winds; dry season (December to May) with northeasterly harmattan winds
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing generally flat coastal plain, hilly to mountainous interior
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mont Nimba 1,752 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing bauxite, iron ore, diamonds, gold, uranium, hydropower, fish, salt
Land use:
Definition Field Listing arable land: 4.47%
permanent crops: 2.64%
other: 92.89% (2005)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing 950 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources:
Definition Field Listing 226 cu km (1987)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
Definition Field Listing total: 1.51 cu km/yr (8%/2%/90%)
per capita: 161 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing hot, dry, dusty harmattan haze may reduce visibility during dry season
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing deforestation; inadequate supplies of potable water; desertification; soil contamination and erosion; overfishing, overpopulation in forest region; poor mining practices have led to environmental damage
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing the Niger and its important tributary the Milo have their sources in the Guinean highlands
   People    Guinea
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 9,806,509 (July 2008 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing 0-14 years: 42.9% (male 2,126,575/female 2,080,048)
15-64 years: 53.7% (male 2,628,675/female 2,633,876)
65 years and over: 3.4% (male 148,159/female 189,176) (2008 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing total: 18.4 years
male: 18.2 years
female: 18.7 years (2008 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing 2.492% (2008 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 37.84 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 11.29 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order -1.63 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2008 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 67.41 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 71.02 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 63.69 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total population: 56.58 years
male: 55.12 years
female: 58.08 years (2008 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 5.25 children born/woman (2008 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 3.2% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 140,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 9,000 (2003 est.)
Major infectious diseases:
Definition Field Listing degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and yellow fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
aerosolized dust or soil contact disease: Lassa fever (2008)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing noun: Guinean(s)
adjective: Guinean
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing Peuhl 40%, Malinke 30%, Soussou 20%, smaller ethnic groups 10%
Religions:
Definition Field Listing Muslim 85%, Christian 8%, indigenous beliefs 7%
Languages:
Definition Field Listing French (official); note - each ethnic group has its own language
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 29.5%
male: 42.6%
female: 18.1% (2003 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
Definition Field Listing total: 8 years
male: 10 years
female: 7 years (2006)
Education expenditures:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 1.6% of GDP (2005)
   Government    Guinea
Country name:
Definition Field Listing conventional long form: Republic of Guinea
conventional short form: Guinea
local long form: Republique de Guinee
local short form: Guinee
former: French Guinea
Government type:
Definition Field Listing republic
Capital:
Definition Field Listing name: Conakry
geographic coordinates: 9 33 N, 13 42 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing 33 prefectures and 1 special zone (zone special)*; Beyla, Boffa, Boke, Conakry*, Coyah, Dabola, Dalaba, Dinguiraye, Dubreka, Faranah, Forecariah, Fria, Gaoual, Gueckedou, Kankan, Kerouane, Kindia, Kissidougou, Koubia, Koundara, Kouroussa, Labe, Lelouma, Lola, Macenta, Mali, Mamou, Mandiana, Nzerekore, Pita, Siguiri, Telimele, Tougue, Yomou
Independence:
Definition Field Listing 2 October 1958 (from France)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing Independence Day, 2 October (1958)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing 23 December 1990 (Loi Fundamentale)
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing based on French civil law system, customary law, and decree; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing chief of state: President Lansana CONTE (head of military government since 5 April 1984, elected president 19 December 1993)
head of government: Prime Minister Ahmed Tidiane SOUARE (since 23 May 2008)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (no term limits); candidate must receive a majority of the votes cast to be elected president; election last held 21 December 2003 (next to be held in December 2010); the prime minister is appointed by the president
election results: Lansana CONTE reelected president; percent of vote - Lansana CONTE 95.3%, Mamadou Bhoye BARRY 4.6%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing unicameral People's National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale Populaire (114 seats; members are elected by a mixed system of direct popular vote and proportional party lists)
elections: last held 30 June 2002 (next to be held in 2008)
election results: percent of vote by party - PUP 61.6%, UPR 26.6%, other 11.8%; seats by party - PUP 85, UPR 20, other 9
note: legislative elections were due in 2007 but have been postponed
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing Court of First Instance or Tribunal de Premiere Instance; Court of Appeal or Cour d'Appel; Supreme Court or Cour Supreme
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing National Union for Progress or UPN [Mamadou Bhoye BARRY]; Party for Unity and Progress or PUP (the governing party) [Lansana CONTE]; People's Party of Guinea or PPG [Charles Pascal TOLNO]; Rally for the Guinean People or RPG [Alpha CONDE]; Union of Democratic Forces of Guinea or UFDG [Cellou Dalein DIALLO]; Union of Republican Forces or UFR [Sidya TOURE]; Union for Progress of Guinea or UPG [Jean-Marie DORE, secretary-general]; Union for Progress and Renewal or UPR [Ousmane BAH]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing National Confederation of Guinean Workers-Labor Union of Guinean Workers or CNTG-USTG Alliance (includes National Confederation of Guinean Workers or CNTG [Rabiatou Sarah DIALLO] and Labor Union of Guinean Workers or USTG [Dr. Ibrahima FOFANA]); National Council of Civil Society Organizations of Guinea or CNOSCG [Ben Sekou SYLLA]; Syndicate of Guinean Teachers and Researchers or SLECG [Dr. Louis M'Bemba SOUMAH]
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing ACP, AfDB, AU, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MINURSO, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing chief of mission: Ambassador Mory Karamoko KABA
chancery: 2112 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 483-9420
FAX: [1] (202) 483-8688
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing chief of mission: Ambassador Phillip CARTER III
embassy: Koloma, Conakry, east of Hamdallaye Circle
mailing address: B. P. 603, Transversale No. 2, Centre Administratif de Koloma, Commune de Ratoma, Conakry
telephone: [224] 30-42-08-61 through 68
FAX: [224] 30-42-08-73
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing three equal vertical bands of red (hoist side), yellow, and green; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia
   Economy    Guinea
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing Guinea possesses major mineral, hydropower, and agricultural resources, yet remains an underdeveloped nation. The country has almost half of the world's bauxite reserves and is the second-largest bauxite producer. The mining sector accounts for over 70% of exports. Long-run improvements in government fiscal arrangements, literacy, and the legal framework are needed if the country is to move out of poverty. Investor confidence has been sapped by rampant corruption, a lack of electricity and other infrastructure, a lack of skilled workers, and the political uncertainty due to the failing health of President Lansana CONTE. Guinea is trying to reengage with the IMF and World Bank, which cut off most assistance in 2003, and is working closely with technical advisors from the U.S. Treasury Department, the World Bank and IMF, seeking to return to a fully funded program. Growth rose slightly in 2006-07, primarily due to increases in global demand and commodity prices on world markets, but the standard of living fell. The Guinea franc depreciated sharply as the prices for basic necessities like food and fuel rose beyond the reach of most Guineans. Dissatisfaction with economic conditions prompted nationwide strikes in February and June 2006.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $10.96 billion (2007 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
Definition Field Listing $4.714 billion (2007 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 1.5% (2007 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $1,100 (2007 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing agriculture: 23.8%
industry: 38.6%
services: 37.6% (2007 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 3.7 million (2006 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing agriculture: 76%
industry and services: 24% (2006 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order NA%
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing 47% (2006 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing lowest 10%: 1.9%
highest 10%: 41% (2006)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing 38.1 (2006)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 23.4% (2007 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 11.3% of GDP (2007 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing revenues: $347.1 million
expenditures: $742.7 million (2007 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing rice, coffee, pineapples, palm kernels, cassava (tapioca), bananas, sweet potatoes; cattle, sheep, goats; timber
Industries:
Definition Field Listing bauxite, gold, diamonds, iron; alumina refining; light manufacturing, and agricultural processing
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 7.6% (2007 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 840 million kWh
note: excludes electricity generated at interior mining sites (2006)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 832.9 million kWh (2006)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing 0 kWh (2006)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing 0 kWh (2006)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0 bbl/day (2006 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 9,650 bbl/day (2006 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0 bbl/day (2004)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 8,481 bbl/day (2004)
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0 bbl (1 January 2006 est.)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0 cu m (2005)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0 cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order -$424 million (2007 est.)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $1.128 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing bauxite, alumina, gold, diamonds, coffee, fish, agricultural products
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing Russia 10.5%, Ukraine 9.2%, South Korea 8.4%, Spain 8.4%, US 7.2%, Germany 7.1%, France 6.6%, Ireland 5.2%, China 4.8% (2007)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $1.202 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing petroleum products, metals, machinery, transport equipment, textiles, grain and other foodstuffs
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing China 10%, France 7%, Netherlands 6.3% (2007)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing $182.1 million (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $119 million (31 December 2007 est.)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $3.351 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $NA
Currency (code):
Definition Field Listing Guinean franc (GNF)
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing Guinean francs per US dollar - 4,122.8 (2007), 5,350 (2006), 3,644.3 (2005), 2,225 (2004), 1,984.9 (2003)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing calendar year
   Communications    Guinea
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 26,300 (2005)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 189,000 (2005)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing general assessment: inadequate system of open-wire lines, small radiotelephone communication stations, and new microwave radio relay system
domestic: Conakry reasonably well served; coverage elsewhere remains inadequate and large companies tend to rely on their own systems for nationwide links; combined fixed and mobile-cellular teledensity is about 2 per 100 persons
international: country code - 224; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing AM 0, FM 5, shortwave 3 (2006)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing 6 (2001)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing .gn
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 173 (2007)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 50,000 (2006)
   Transportation    Guinea
Airports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 16 (2007)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing total: 5
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 (2007)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing total: 11
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 2 (2007)
Railways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 837 km
standard gauge: 175 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 662 km 1.000-m gauge (2006)
Roadways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 44,348 km
paved: 4,342 km
unpaved: 40,006 km (2003)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 1,300 km (navigable by shallow-draft native craft) (2005)
Ports and terminals:
Definition Field Listing Conakry, Kamsar
   Military    Guinea
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing Armed Forces: Army, Navy (Marine Guineenne, includes Marines), Air Force, Presidential Guard (2008)
Military service age and obligation:
Definition Field Listing 18 years of age for compulsory military service; 2-year conscript service obligation (2006)
Manpower available for military service:
Definition Field Listing males age 16-49: 2,230,049
females age 16-49: 2,193,236 (2008 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing males age 16-49: 1,268,193
females age 16-49: 1,259,913 (2008 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
Definition Field Listing male: 106,967
female: 104,631 (2008 est.)
Military expenditures:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 1.7% of GDP (2006)
   Transnational Issues    Guinea
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing conflicts among rebel groups, warlords, and youth gangs in neighboring states have spilled over into Guinea, resulting in domestic instability; Sierra Leone considers Guinea's definition of the flood plain limits to define the left bank boundary of the Makona and Moa rivers excessive and protests Guinea's continued occupation of these lands, including the hamlet of Yenga, occupied since 1998
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
Definition Field Listing refugees (country of origin): 21,856 (Liberia); 5,259 (Sierra Leone); 3,900 (Cote d'Ivoire)
IDPs: 19,000 (cross-border incursions from Cote d'Ivoire, Liberia, Sierra Leone) (2007)
Trafficking in persons:
Definition Field Listing current situation: Guinea is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children trafficked for the purposes of forced labor and sexual exploitation; the majority of victims are children, and internal trafficking is more prevalent than transnational trafficking; within the country, girls are trafficked primarily for domestic servitude and sexual exploitation, while boys are trafficked for forced agricultural labor, and as forced beggars, street vendors, shoe shiners, and laborers in gold and diamond mines; some Guinean men are also trafficked for agricultural labor within Guinea; transnationally, girls are trafficked into Guinea for domestic servitude and likely also for sexual exploitation
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Guinea is on the Tier 2 Watch List for its failure to provide evidence of increasing efforts to eliminate trafficking over 2006; Guinea demonstrated minimal law enforcement efforts for a second year in a row, while protection efforts diminished over efforts in 2006; the government did not report any trafficking convictions in 2007; due to a lack of resources, the government does not provide shelter services for trafficking victims; the government took no measures to reduce the demand for commercial sexual exploitation (2008)


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Source : CIA's World Fact Book 2008

Since 2003, January 19