Congo

source : World Fact Book 2008 (October 2008)

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   Introduction    Congo, Republic of the
Background:
Definition Field Listing Upon independence in 1960, the former French region of Middle Congo became the Republic of the Congo. A quarter century of experimentation with Marxism was abandoned in 1990 and a democratically elected government took office in 1992. A brief civil war in 1997 restored former Marxist President Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO, and ushered in a period of ethnic and political unrest. Southern-based rebel groups agreed to a final peace accord in March 2003, but the calm is tenuous and refugees continue to present a humanitarian crisis. The Republic of Congo was once one of Africa's largest petroleum producers, but with declining production it will need new offshore oil finds to sustain its oil earnings over the long term.
   Geography    Congo, Republic of the
Location:
Definition Field Listing Western Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Angola and Gabon
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing 1 00 S, 15 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing Africa
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 342,000 sq km
land: 341,500 sq km
water: 500 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing slightly smaller than Montana
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing total: 5,504 km
border countries: Angola 201 km, Cameroon 523 km, Central African Republic 467 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,410 km, Gabon 1,903 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing 169 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing territorial sea: 200 nm
Climate:
Definition Field Listing tropical; rainy season (March to June); dry season (June to October); persistent high temperatures and humidity; particularly enervating climate astride the Equator
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing coastal plain, southern basin, central plateau, northern basin
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Berongou 903 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing petroleum, timber, potash, lead, zinc, uranium, copper, phosphates, gold, magnesium, natural gas, hydropower
Land use:
Definition Field Listing arable land: 1.45%
permanent crops: 0.15%
other: 98.4% (2005)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing 20 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources:
Definition Field Listing 832 cu km (1987)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
Definition Field Listing total: 0.03 cu km/yr (59%/29%/12%)
per capita: 8 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing seasonal flooding
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing air pollution from vehicle emissions; water pollution from the dumping of raw sewage; tap water is not potable; deforestation
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing about 70% of the population lives in Brazzaville, Pointe-Noire, or along the railroad between them
   People    Congo, Republic of the
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 3,903,318
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2008 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing 0-14 years: 46.1% (male 906,345/female 894,568)
15-64 years: 51% (male 989,126/female 1,002,682)
65 years and over: 2.8% (male 45,560/female 65,037) (2008 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing total: 16.7 years
male: 16.5 years
female: 17 years (2008 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing 2.696% (2008 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 41.76 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 12.28 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order -2.52 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2008 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 81.29 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 86.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 75.51 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total population: 53.74 years
male: 52.52 years
female: 55 years (2008 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 5.92 children born/woman (2008 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 4.9% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 90,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 9,700 (2003 est.)
Major infectious diseases:
Definition Field Listing degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: malaria and African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness)
animal contact disease: rabies (2008)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing noun: Congolese (singular and plural)
adjective: Congolese or Congo
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing Kongo 48%, Sangha 20%, M'Bochi 12%, Teke 17%, Europeans and other 3%
Religions:
Definition Field Listing Christian 50%, animist 48%, Muslim 2%
Languages:
Definition Field Listing French (official), Lingala and Monokutuba (lingua franca trade languages), many local languages and dialects (of which Kikongo is the most widespread)
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 83.8%
male: 89.6%
female: 78.4% (2003 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
Definition Field Listing total: 9 years
male: 10 years
female: 8 years (2003)
Education expenditures:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 1.9% of GDP (2005)
   Government    Congo, Republic of the
Country name:
Definition Field Listing conventional long form: Republic of the Congo
conventional short form: Congo (Brazzaville)
local long form: Republique du Congo
local short form: none
former: Middle Congo, Congo/Brazzaville, Congo
Government type:
Definition Field Listing republic
Capital:
Definition Field Listing name: Brazzaville
geographic coordinates: 4 15 S, 15 17 E
time difference: UTC+1 (six hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing 10 regions (regions, singular - region) and 1 commune*; Bouenza, Brazzaville*, Cuvette, Cuvette-Ouest, Kouilou, Lekoumou, Likouala, Niari, Plateaux, Pool, Sangha
Independence:
Definition Field Listing 15 August 1960 (from France)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing Independence Day, 15 August (1960)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing approved by referendum 20 January 2002
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing based on French civil law system and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing chief of state: President Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO (since 25 October 1997, following the civil war in which he toppled elected president Pascal LISSOUBA);
head of government: Prime Minister Isidore MVOUBA (since 7 January 2005)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 10 March 2002 (next to be held in 2009)
election results: Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO reelected president; percent of vote - Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO 89.4%, Joseph Kignoumbi Kia MBOUNGOU 2.7%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (66 seats; members are elected by indirect vote to serve five-year terms) and the National Assembly (137 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held 11 July 2002 (next to be held in July 2008); National Assembly - last held 24 June and 5 August 2007 (next to be held in 2012)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - FDU 56, other 10; National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PCT 46, MCDDI 11, UPADS 11, MAR 5, MSD 5, independents 37, other 22
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing Supreme Court or Cour Supreme
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing Action Movement for Renewal or MAR; Congolese Movement for Democracy and Integral Development or MCDDI [Michel MAMPOUYA]; Congolese Labour Party or PCT; Movement for Solidarity and Development or MSD; Pan-African Union for Social Development or UPADS [Martin MBERI]; Rally for Democracy and Social Progress or RDPS [Jean-Pierre Thystere TCHICAYA, president]; Rally for Democracy and the Republic or RDR [Raymond Damasge NGOLLO]; Union for Democracy and Republic or UDR; United Democratic Forces or FDU [Sebastian EBAO]; many less important parties
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing Congolese Trade Union Congress or CSC; General Union of Congolese Pupils and Students or UGEEC; Revolutionary Union of Congolese Women or URFC; Union of Congolese Socialist Youth or UJSC
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AU, BDEAC, CEMAC, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing chief of mission: Ambassador Serge MOMBOULI
chancery: 4891 Colorado Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20011
telephone: [1] (202) 726-5500
FAX: [1] (202) 726-1860
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing chief of mission: Ambassador Robert WEISBERG
embassy: BDEAC Building, 4th Floor, Brazzaville note - a new Embassy is expected to open in 2009
mailing address: NA
telephone: [242] 81-1480
FAX:: [243] 81-5324; note - until the new embassy in Brazzaville is operational, some duties are still handled in the US embassy in Kinshasha, Democratic Republic of the Congo
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing divided diagonally from the lower hoist side by a yellow band; the upper triangle (hoist side) is green and the lower triangle is red
note: uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia
   Economy    Congo, Republic of the
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing The economy is a mixture of subsistance agriculture, an industrial sector based largely on oil, and support services, and a government characterized by budget problems and overstaffing. Oil has supplanted forestry as the mainstay of the economy, providing a major share of government revenues and exports. In the early 1980s, rapidly rising oil revenues enabled the government to finance large-scale development projects with GDP growth averaging 5% annually, one of the highest rates in Africa. The government has mortgaged a substantial portion of its oil earnings through oil-backed loans that have contributed to a growing debt burden and chronic revenue shortfalls. Economic reform efforts have been undertaken with the support of international organizations, notably the World Bank and the IMF. However, the reform program came to a halt in June 1997 when civil war erupted. Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO, who returned to power when the war ended in October 1997, publicly expressed interest in moving forward on economic reforms and privatization and in renewing cooperation with international financial institutions. Economic progress was badly hurt by slumping oil prices and the resumption of armed conflict in December 1998, which worsened the republic's budget deficit. The current administration presides over an uneasy internal peace and faces difficult economic challenges of stimulating recovery and reducing poverty. Recovery of oil prices has boosted the economy's GDP and near-term prospects. In March 2006, the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) approved Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) treatment for Congo.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $12.86 billion (2007 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
Definition Field Listing $7.657 billion (2007 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order -1.6% (2007 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $3,400 (2007 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing agriculture: 5.6%
industry: 57.1%
services: 37.3% (2006 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order NA
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order NA%
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 2.7% (2007 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 40.4% of GDP (2007 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing revenues: $3.295 billion
expenditures: $2.444 billion (2007 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing cassava (tapioca), sugar, rice, corn, peanuts, vegetables, coffee, cocoa; forest products
Industries:
Definition Field Listing petroleum extraction, cement, lumber, brewing, sugar, palm oil, soap, flour, cigarettes
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order -12% (2007 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 352 million kWh (2005)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 572 million kWh (2005)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing 0 kWh (2005)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing 418 million kWh (2005)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 223,700 bbl/day
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 7,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 229,700 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 11,410 bbl/day (2004)
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 1.506 billion bbl (1 January 2006 est.)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 115.1 million cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 115.1 million cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0 cu m (2005)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 86.9 billion cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order -$1.491 billion (2007 est.)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $5.8 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing petroleum, lumber, plywood, sugar, cocoa, coffee, diamonds
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing US 34.7%, China 30.8%, South Korea 9.6%, Taiwan 8.3%, Brazil 4.3% (2007)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $2.634 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing capital equipment, construction materials, foodstuffs
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing France 21.5%, China 14.9%, Italy 12.2%, India 5.6%, US 5%, Belgium 4.5% (2007)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing $1.449 billion (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $2.206 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $5 billion (2000 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $NA
Currency (code):
Definition Field Listing Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XAF); note - responsible authority is the Bank of the Central African States
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XAF) per US dollar - 483.6 (2007), 522.59 (2006), 527.47 (2005), 528.29 (2004), 581.2 (2003)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing calendar year
   Communications    Congo, Republic of the
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 15,900 (2005)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 1.334 million (2007)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing general assessment: services barely adequate for government use; key exchanges are in Brazzaville, Pointe-Noire, and Loubomo; intercity lines frequently out of order; fixed-line infrastructure inadequate providing less than 1 connection per 100 persons; in the absence of an adequate fixed line infrastructure, mobile-cellular subscribership has surged reaching 35 per 100 persons
domestic: primary network consists of microwave radio relay and coaxial cable
international: country code - 242; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing AM 1, FM 5, shortwave 3 (2001)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing 1 (2001)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing .cg
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 3 (2007)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 70,000 (2006)
   Transportation    Congo, Republic of the
Airports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 31 (2007)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing total: 5
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (2007)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing total: 26
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 10
under 914 m: 9 (2007)
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing gas 89 km; liquid petroleum gas 4 km; oil 758 km (2007)
Railways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 894 km
narrow gauge: 894 km 1.067-m gauge (2006)
Roadways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 17,289 km
paved: 864 km
unpaved: 16,425 km (2004)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 1,125 km (commercially navigable on Congo and Oubanqui rivers) (2006)
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order registered in other countries: 1 (Congo , Democratic Republic of the 1) (2008)
Ports and terminals:
Definition Field Listing Brazzaville, Djeno, Impfondo, Ouesso, Oyo, Pointe-Noire
   Military    Congo, Republic of the
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing Congolese Armed Forces (Forces Armees Congolaises, FAC): Army, Navy, Congolese Air Force (Armee de l'Air Congolaise), Gendarmerie, Special Presidential Security Guard (GSSP) (2008)
Military service age and obligation:
Definition Field Listing 18 years of age for voluntary military service; women allowed to serve (2007)
Manpower available for military service:
Definition Field Listing males age 16-49: 842,771
females age 16-49: 833,624 (2008 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing males age 16-49: 519,296
females age 16-49: 509,564 (2008 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
Definition Field Listing male: 45,671
female: 45,248 (2008 est.)
Military expenditures:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 3.1% of GDP (2006)
   Transnational Issues    Congo, Republic of the
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing the location of the boundary in the broad Congo River with the Democratic Republic of the Congo is indefinite except in the Pool Malebo/Stanley Pool area
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
Definition Field Listing refugees (country of origin): 46,341 (Democratic Republic of Congo); 6,564 (Rwanda)
IDPs: 48,000 (multiple civil wars since 1992; most IDPs are ethnic Lari) (2007)
Trafficking in persons:
Definition Field Listing current situation: Republic of the Congo is a source and destination country for children trafficked for the purposes of forced labor and commercial sexual exploitation; girls are trafficked from rural areas within the country for commercial sexual exploitation, forced street vending, and domestic servitude; children are trafficked from other African countries for domestic servitude, forced market vending, and forced labor in the fishing industry
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Republic of the Congo is on the Tier 2 Watch List for its failure to show evidence of increasing efforts to combat trafficking in persons in 2007; struggling to recover from six years of civil conflict that ended in 2003, the Republic of the Congo's capacity to address trafficking is handicapped; the government neither monitors its borders for trafficking activity nor provides specialized anti-trafficking training for law enforcement officials; the government does not encourage victims to assist in trafficking investigations or prosecutions, and has not taken measures to reduce demand for commercial sex acts in the Republic of the Congo (2008)


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Source : CIA's World Fact Book 2008

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