Ivory Coast

source : World Fact Book 2008 (October 2008)


   Introduction    Cote d'Ivoire
Definition Field Listing Close ties to France since independence in 1960, the development of cocoa production for export, and foreign investment made Cote d'Ivoire one of the most prosperous of the West African states, but did not protect it from political turmoil. In December 1999, a military coup - the first ever in Cote d'Ivoire's history - overthrew the government. Junta leader Robert GUEI blatantly rigged elections held in late 2000 and declared himself the winner. Popular protest forced him to step aside and brought Laurent GBAGBO into power. Ivorian dissidents and disaffected members of the military launched a failed coup attempt in September 2002. Rebel forces claimed the northern half of the country, and in January 2003 were granted ministerial positions in a unity government under the auspices of the Linas-Marcoussis Peace Accord. President GBAGBO and rebel forces resumed implementation of the peace accord in December 2003 after a three-month stalemate, but issues that sparked the civil war, such as land reform and grounds for citizenship, remained unresolved. In March 2007 President GBAGBO and former New Force rebel leader Guillaume SORO signed the Ouagadougou Political Agreement. As a result of the agreement, SORO joined GBAGBO's government as Prime Minister and the two agreed to reunite the country by dismantling the zone of confidence separating North from South, integrate rebel forces into the national armed forces, and hold elections. Several thousand French and UN troops remain in Cote d'Ivoire to help the parties implement their commitments and to support the peace process.
   Geography    Cote d'Ivoire
Definition Field Listing Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Ghana and Liberia
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing 8 00 N, 5 00 W
Map references:
Definition Field Listing Africa
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 322,460 sq km
land: 318,000 sq km
water: 4,460 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing slightly larger than New Mexico
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing total: 3,110 km
border countries: Burkina Faso 584 km, Ghana 668 km, Guinea 610 km, Liberia 716 km, Mali 532 km
Definition Field Listing 515 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm
Definition Field Listing tropical along coast, semiarid in far north; three seasons - warm and dry (November to March), hot and dry (March to May), hot and wet (June to October)
Definition Field Listing mostly flat to undulating plains; mountains in northwest
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing lowest point: Gulf of Guinea 0 m
highest point: Mont Nimba 1,752 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing petroleum, natural gas, diamonds, manganese, iron ore, cobalt, bauxite, copper, gold, nickel, tantalum, silica sand, clay, cocoa beans, coffee, palm oil, hydropower
Land use:
Definition Field Listing arable land: 10.23%
permanent crops: 11.16%
other: 78.61% (2005)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing 730 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources:
Definition Field Listing 81 cu km (2001)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
Definition Field Listing total: 0.93 cu km/yr (24%/12%/65%)
per capita: 51 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing coast has heavy surf and no natural harbors; during the rainy season torrential flooding is possible
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing deforestation (most of the country's forests - once the largest in West Africa - have been heavily logged); water pollution from sewage and industrial and agricultural effluents
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing most of the inhabitants live along the sandy coastal region; apart from the capital area, the forested interior is sparsely populated
   People    Cote d'Ivoire
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 20,179,602
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2008 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing 0-14 years: 40.9% (male 4,161,238/female 4,092,593)
15-64 years: 56.3% (male 5,790,503/female 5,568,621)
65 years and over: 2.8% (male 285,116/female 281,531) (2008 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing total: 19 years
male: 19.2 years
female: 18.9 years (2008 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing 2.156% (2008 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 32.73 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 11.17 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order NA (2008 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.01 male(s)/female
total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2008 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 69.76 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 77.06 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 62.25 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total population: 54.64 years
male: 53.95 years
female: 55.35 years (2008 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 4.23 children born/woman (2008 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 7% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 570,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 47,000 (2003 est.)
Major infectious diseases:
Definition Field Listing degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and yellow fever
water contact: schistosomiasis
note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2008)
Definition Field Listing noun: Ivoirian(s)
adjective: Ivoirian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing Akan 42.1%, Voltaiques or Gur 17.6%, Northern Mandes 16.5%, Krous 11%, Southern Mandes 10%, other 2.8% (includes 130,000 Lebanese and 14,000 French) (1998)
Definition Field Listing Muslim 38.6%, Christian 32.8%, indigenous 11.9%, none 16.7% (2008 est)
note: the majority of foreigners (migratory workers) are Muslim (70%) and Christian (20%)
Definition Field Listing French (official), 60 native dialects with Dioula the most widely spoken
Definition Field Listing definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 48.7%
male: 60.8%
female: 38.6% (2000 est.)
Education expenditures:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 4.6% of GDP (2001)
   Government    Cote d'Ivoire
Country name:
Definition Field Listing conventional long form: Republic of Cote d'Ivoire
conventional short form: Cote d'Ivoire
local long form: Republique de Cote d'Ivoire
local short form: Cote d'Ivoire
note: pronounced coat-div-whar
former: Ivory Coast
Government type:
Definition Field Listing republic; multiparty presidential regime established 1960
note: the government is currently operating under a power-sharing agreement mandated by international mediators
Definition Field Listing name: Yamoussoukro
geographic coordinates: 6 49 N, 5 17 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
note: although Yamoussoukro has been the official capital since 1983, Abidjan remains the commercial and administrative center; the US, like other countries, maintains its Embassy in Abidjan
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing 19 regions; Agneby, Bafing, Bas-Sassandra, Denguele, Dix-Huit Montagnes, Fromager, Haut-Sassandra, Lacs, Lagunes, Marahoue, Moyen-Cavally, Moyen-Comoe, N'zi-Comoe, Savanes, Sud-Bandama, Sud-Comoe, Vallee du Bandama, Worodougou, Zanzan
Definition Field Listing 7 August 1960 (from France)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing Independence Day, 7 August (1960)
Definition Field Listing approved by referendum 23 July 2000
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing based on French civil law system and customary law; judicial review in the Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Definition Field Listing 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing chief of state: President Laurent GBAGBO (since 26 October 2000)
head of government: Prime Minister Guillaume SORO (since 4 April 2007)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president; note - under the current power-sharing agreement the prime minister and the president share the authority to appoint ministers
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (no term limits); election last held 26 October 2000 (next to be held 30 November 2008; elections were to be held in 2005 but have been repeatedly postponed by the government; the UN Security Council has extended the government's mandate); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Laurent GBAGBO elected president; percent of vote - Laurent GBAGBO 59.4%, Robert GUEI 32.7%, Francis WODIE 5.7%, other 2.2%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (225 seats; members are elected in single- and multi-district elections by direct popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: elections last held 10 December 2000 with by-elections on 14 January 2001 (next to be held in November 2008 after the government postponed the elections in 2005 and 2006)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - FPI 96, PDCI-RDA 94, RDR 5, PIT 4, other 2, independents 22, vacant 2
note: a Senate that was scheduled to be created in the October 2006 elections never took place
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing Supreme Court or Cour Supreme consists of four chambers: Judicial Chamber for criminal cases, Audit Chamber for financial cases, Constitutional Chamber for judicial review cases, and Administrative Chamber for civil cases; there is no legal limit to the number of members
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing Citizen's Democratic Union or UDCY [Theodore MEL EG]; Democratic Party of Cote d'Ivoire or PDCI [Henri Konan BEDIE]; Ivorian Popular Front or FPI [Pascale Affi N'GUESSAN]; Ivorian Worker's Party or PIT [Francis WODIE]; Opposition Movement of the Future or MFA [Innocent Augustin ANAKY]; Rally of the Republicans or RDR [Alassane OUATTARA]; Union for Democracy and Peace in Cote d'Ivoire or UDPCI [Toikeuse MABRI]; over 144 smaller registered parties
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing Federation of University and High School Students of Cote d'Ivoire or FESCI [Serges KOFFI]; Rally of Houphouetists for Democracy and Peace or RHDP [Alphonse DJEDJE MADY]; Young Patriots [Charles BLE GOUDE]
International organization participation:
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing chief of mission: Ambassador Yao Charles KOFFI
chancery: 3421 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 797-0300
FAX: [1] (202) 244-3088
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing chief of mission: Ambassador Wanda L. NESBITT
embassy: Riviera Golf 01, Abidjan
mailing address: B. P. 1712, Abidjan 01
telephone: [225] 22 49 40 00
FAX: [225] 22 49 43 23
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing three equal vertical bands of orange (hoist side), white, and green
note: similar to the flag of Ireland, which is longer and has the colors reversed - green (hoist side), white, and orange; also similar to the flag of Italy, which is green (hoist side), white, and red; design was based on the flag of France
   Economy    Cote d'Ivoire
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing Cote d'Ivoire is the world's largest producer and exporter of cocoa beans and a significant producer and exporter of coffee and palm oil. Consequently, the economy is highly sensitive to fluctuations in international prices for these products, and, to a lesser extent, in climatic conditions. Despite government attempts to diversify the economy, it is still heavily dependent on agriculture and related activities, engaging roughly 68% of the population. Since 2006, oil and gas production have become more important engines of economic activity than cocoa. According to IMF statistics, earnings from oil and refined products were $1.3 billion in 2006, while cocoa-related revenues were $1 billion during the same period. Cote d'Ivoire's offshore oil and gas production has resulted in substantial crude oil exports and provides sufficient natural gas to fuel electricity exports to Ghana, Togo, Benin, Mali and Burkina Faso. Oil exploration by a number of consortiums of private companies continues offshore, and President GBAGBO has expressed hope that daily crude output could reach 200,000 barrels per day (b/d) by the end of the decade. Since the end of the civil war in 2003, political turmoil has continued to damage the economy, resulting in the loss of foreign investment and slow economic growth. GDP grew by 1.8% in 2006 and 1.7% in 2007. Per capita income has declined by 15% since 1999.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $32.85 billion (2007 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
Definition Field Listing $19.6 billion (2007 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 1.6% (2007 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $1,700 (2007 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing agriculture: 28.1%
industry: 21.5%
services: 50.5% (2007 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 6.907 million (68% agricultural) (2007 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing agriculture: 68%
industry and services: NA (2007 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order unemployment may have climbed to 40-50% as a result of the civil war
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing 42% (2006 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing lowest 10%: 2%
highest 10%: 34% (2002)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing 44.6 (2002)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 1.9% (2007 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 8.8% of GDP (2007 est.)
Definition Field Listing revenues: $3.884 billion
expenditures: $4.106 billion (2007 est.)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 75.2% of GDP (2007 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing coffee, cocoa beans, bananas, palm kernels, corn, rice, manioc (tapioca), sweet potatoes, sugar, cotton, rubber; timber
Definition Field Listing foodstuffs, beverages; wood products, oil refining, truck and bus assembly, textiles, fertilizer, building materials, electricity, ship construction and repair
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order -1.8% (2007 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 5.305 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 2.9 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing 1.397 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing 0 kWh (2005)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 48,370 bbl/day (2007 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 27,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 85,780 bbl/day (2004)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 76,730 bbl/day (2004)
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 250 million bbl (1 January 2007 est.)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 1.247 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 1.247 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0 cu m (2005)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 27.16 billion cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order -$146 million (2007 est.)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $8.476 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing cocoa, coffee, timber, petroleum, cotton, bananas, pineapples, palm oil, fish
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing Germany 9.6%, Nigeria 9.1%, Netherlands 8.3%, France 7.2%, US 6.9%, Burkina Faso 4.4% (2007)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $5.932 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing fuel, capital equipment, foodstuffs
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing Nigeria 30.3%, France 16.3%, China 7.1% (2007)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing ODA, $60 million (2007 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $2.519 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $13.79 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $NA
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $NA
Market value of publicly traded shares:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $4.155 billion (2006)
Currency (code):
Definition Field Listing Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XOF); note - responsible authority is the Central Bank of the West African States
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFA) per US dollar - 481.83 (2007), 522.89 (2006), 527.47 (2005), 528.29 (2004), 581.2 (2003)
note: since 1 January 1999, the XOF franc has been pegged to the euro at a rate of 655.957 XOF francs per euro
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing calendar year
   Communications    Cote d'Ivoire
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 730,000 (2007)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 7.05 million (2007)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing general assessment: well developed by African standards; telecommunications sector privatized in late 1990s and operational fixed-lines have more than quadrupled since that time; with multiple cellular service providers competing in the market, cellular usage has increased sharply to roughly 40 per 100 persons
domestic: open-wire lines and microwave radio relay; 90% digitalized
international: country code - 225; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and Asia; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) (2007)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing AM 2, FM 9, shortwave 3 (1998)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing 14 (1998)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing .ci
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 1,373 (2007)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 300,000 (2006)
   Transportation    Cote d'Ivoire
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 34 (2007)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing total: 7
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 (2007)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing total: 27
1,524 to 2,437 m: 8
914 to 1,523 m: 14
under 914 m: 5 (2007)
Definition Field Listing condensate 102 km; gas 245 km; oil 112 km (2007)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 660 km
narrow gauge: 660 km 1.000 meter gauge
note: an additional 622 km of this railroad extends into Burkina Faso (2006)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 80,000 km
paved: 6,500 km
unpaved: 73,500 km
note: includes intercity and urban roads; another 20,000 km of dirt roads are in poor condition and 150,000 km of dirt roads are impassable (2006)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 980 km (navigable rivers, canals, and numerous coastal lagoons) (2006)
Ports and terminals:
Definition Field Listing Abidjan, Espoir, San-Pedro
   Military    Cote d'Ivoire
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing Cote d'Ivoire Defense and Security Forces (FDSC): Army, Navy, Air Force (2006)
Military service age and obligation:
Definition Field Listing 18 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service (2008)
Manpower available for military service:
Definition Field Listing males age 16-49: 4,369,735
females age 16-49: 4,287,042 (2008 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing males age 16-49: 2,393,104
females age 16-49: 2,381,607 (2008 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
Definition Field Listing male: 234,032
female: 230,799 (2008 est.)
Military expenditures:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 1.6% of GDP (2005 est)
   Transnational Issues    Cote d'Ivoire
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing despite the presence of over 9,000 UN forces (UNOCI) in Cote d'Ivoire since 2004, ethnic conflict still leaves displaced hundreds of thousands of Ivorians in and out of the country as well as driven out migrants from neighboring states who worked in Ivorian cocoa plantations; the March 2007 peace deal between Ivorian rebels and the government brought significant numbers of rebels out of hiding in neighboring states
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
Definition Field Listing refugees (country of origin): 25,615 (Liberia)
IDPs: 709,000 (2002 coup; most IDPs are in western regions) (2007)
Trafficking in persons:
Definition Field Listing Cote d'Ivoire is a source, transit, and destination country for women and children trafficked for forced labor and commercial sexual exploitation; trafficking within the country is more prevalent than international trafficking and the majority of victims are children; women and girls are trafficked from northern areas to southern cities for domestic servitude, restaurant labor, and sexual exploitation; boys are trafficked internally for agricultural and service labor and transnationally for forced labor in agriculture, mining, construction, and in the fishing industry; women and girls are trafficked to and from other West and Central African countries for domestic servitude and forced street vending
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Cote d'Ivoire is on the Tier 2 Watch List for its failure to provide evidence of increasing efforts to eliminate trafficking in 2007, particularly with regard to its law enforcement efforts and protection of sex trafficking victims; in addition, Ivoirian law does not prohibit all forms of trafficking, and Cote d'Ivoire has not ratified the 2000 UN TIP Protocol (2008)
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing illicit producer of cannabis, mostly for local consumption; utility as a narcotic transshipment point to Europe reduced by ongoing political instability; while rampant corruption and inadequate supervision leave the banking system vulnerable to money laundering, the lack of a developed financial system limits the country's utility as a major money-laundering center

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Source : CIA's World Fact Book 2008

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