source : World Fact Book 2008 (October 2008)


   Introduction    Canada
Definition Field Listing A land of vast distances and rich natural resources, Canada became a self-governing dominion in 1867 while retaining ties to the British crown. Economically and technologically the nation has developed in parallel with the US, its neighbor to the south across an unfortified border. Canada faces the political challenges of meeting public demands for quality improvements in health care and education services, as well as responding to separatist concerns in predominantly francophone Quebec. Canada also aims to develop its diverse energy resources while maintaining its commitment to the environment.
   Geography    Canada
Definition Field Listing Northern North America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean on the east, North Pacific Ocean on the west, and the Arctic Ocean on the north, north of the conterminous US
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing 60 00 N, 95 00 W
Map references:
Definition Field Listing North America
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 9,984,670 sq km
land: 9,093,507 sq km
water: 891,163 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing somewhat larger than the US
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing total: 8,893 km
border countries: US 8,893 km (includes 2,477 km with Alaska)
Definition Field Listing 202,080 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Definition Field Listing varies from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in north
Definition Field Listing mostly plains with mountains in west and lowlands in southeast
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Logan 5,959 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing iron ore, nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, molybdenum, potash, diamonds, silver, fish, timber, wildlife, coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydropower
Land use:
Definition Field Listing arable land: 4.57%
permanent crops: 0.65%
other: 94.78% (2005)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing 7,850 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources:
Definition Field Listing 3,300 cu km (1985)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
Definition Field Listing total: 44.72 cu km/yr (20%/69%/12%)
per capita: 1,386 cu m/yr (1996)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing continuous permafrost in north is a serious obstacle to development; cyclonic storms form east of the Rocky Mountains, a result of the mixing of air masses from the Arctic, Pacific, and North American interior, and produce most of the country's rain and snow east of the mountains
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing air pollution and resulting acid rain severely affecting lakes and damaging forests; metal smelting, coal-burning utilities, and vehicle emissions impacting on agricultural and forest productivity; ocean waters becoming contaminated due to agricultural, industrial, mining, and forestry activities
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Marine Life Conservation
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing second-largest country in world (after Russia); strategic location between Russia and US via north polar route; approximately 90% of the population is concentrated within 160 km of the US border
   People    Canada
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 33,212,696 (July 2008 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing 0-14 years: 16.3% (male 2,780,491/female 2,644,276)
15-64 years: 68.8% (male 11,547,354/female 11,300,639)
65 years and over: 14.9% (male 2,150,991/female 2,788,945) (2008 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing total: 40.1 years
male: 39 years
female: 41.2 years (2008 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing 0.83% (2008 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 10.29 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 7.61 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 5.62 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2008 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 5.08 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 5.4 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 4.75 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total population: 81.16 years
male: 78.65 years
female: 83.81 years (2008 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 1.57 children born/woman (2008 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0.3% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 56,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 1,500 (2003 est.)
Definition Field Listing noun: Canadian(s)
adjective: Canadian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing British Isles origin 28%, French origin 23%, other European 15%, Amerindian 2%, other, mostly Asian, African, Arab 6%, mixed background 26%
Definition Field Listing Roman Catholic 42.6%, Protestant 23.3% (including United Church 9.5%, Anglican 6.8%, Baptist 2.4%, Lutheran 2%), other Christian 4.4%, Muslim 1.9%, other and unspecified 11.8%, none 16% (2001 census)
Definition Field Listing English (official) 59.3%, French (official) 23.2%, other 17.5%
Definition Field Listing definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99%
male: 99%
female: 99% (2003 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
Definition Field Listing total: 17 years
male: 17 years
female: 17 years (2004)
Education expenditures:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 5.2% of GDP (2002)
   Government    Canada
Country name:
Definition Field Listing conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Canada
Government type:
Definition Field Listing constitutional monarchy that is also a parliamentary democracy and a federation
Definition Field Listing name: Ottawa
geographic coordinates: 45 25 N, 75 42 W
time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins second Sunday in March; ends first Sunday in November
note: Canada is divided into six time zones
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing 10 provinces and 3 territories*; Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Northwest Territories*, Nova Scotia, Nunavut*, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon Territory*
Definition Field Listing 1 July 1867 (union of British North American colonies); 11 December 1931 (recognized by UK)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing Canada Day, 1 July (1867)
Definition Field Listing made up of unwritten and written acts, customs, judicial decisions, and traditions; the written part of the constitution consists of the Constitution Act of 29 March 1867, which created a federation of four provinces, and the Constitution Act of 17 April 1982, which transferred formal control over the constitution from Britain to Canada, and added a Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms as well as procedures for constitutional amendments
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing based on English common law, except in Quebec, where civil law system based on French law prevails; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Definition Field Listing 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Michaelle JEAN (since 27 September 2005)
head of government: Prime Minister Stephen HARPER (since 6 February 2006)
cabinet: Federal Ministry chosen by the prime minister usually from among the members of his own party sitting in Parliament
elections: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister for a five-year term; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition in the House of Commons is automatically designated prime minister by the governor general
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing bicameral Parliament or Parlement consists of the Senate or Senat (105 seats; members appointed by the governor general with the advice of the prime minister and serve until reaching 75 years of age) and the House of Commons or Chambre des Communes (308 seats; members elected by direct, popular vote to serve a maximum of five-year terms starting in 2009 elections)
elections: House of Commons - last held 23 January 2006 (next to be held 19 October 2009)
election results: House of Commons - percent of vote by party - Conservative Party 36.3%, Liberal Party 30.2%, New Democratic Party 17.5%, Bloc Quebecois 10.5%, Greens 4.5%, other 1%; seats by party - Conservative Party 124, Liberal Party 102, New Democratic Party 29, Bloc Quebecois 51, other 2; seats by party as of November 2007 - Conservative Party 125, Liberal Party 96, New Democratic Party 30, Bloc Quebecois 49, other 4, vacant 4
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing Supreme Court of Canada (judges are appointed by the prime minister through the governor general); Federal Court of Canada; Federal Court of Appeal; Provincial Courts (these are named variously Court of Appeal, Court of Queens Bench, Superior Court, Supreme Court, and Court of Justice)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing Bloc Quebecois [Gilles DUCEPPE]; Conservative Party of Canada [Stephen HARPER] (a merger of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative Party); Green Party [Elizabeth MAY]; Liberal Party [Stephane DION]; New Democratic Party [Jack LAYTON]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing other: agricultural sector; automobile industry; business groups; chemical industry; commercial banks; communications sector; energy industry; environmentalists; public administration groups; steel industry; trade unions
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing ACCT, ADB (nonregional members), AfDB (nonregional members), APEC, Arctic Council, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia Group, BIS, C, CDB, CE (observer), EAPC, EBRD, ESA (cooperating state), FAO, G-7, G-8, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MINUSTAH, NAFTA, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS, OECD, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PIF (partner), SECI (observer), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNMIS, UNRWA, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing chief of mission: Ambassador Michael WILSON
chancery: 501 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20001
telephone: [1] (202) 682-1740
FAX: [1] (202) 682-7701
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Buffalo, Chicago, Dallas, Denver, Detroit, Los Angeles, Miami, Minneapolis, New York, Phoenix, San Diego, San Francisco, Seattle, Tucson
consulate(s): Anchorage, Houston, Philadelphia, Princeton (New Jersey), Raleigh, San Jose (California)
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing chief of mission: Ambassador David H. WILKINS
embassy: 490 Sussex Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 1G8
mailing address: P. O. Box 5000, Ogdensburgh, NY 13669-0430; P.O. Box 866, Station B, Ottawa, Ontario K1P 5T1
telephone: [1] (613) 688-5335
FAX: [1] (613) 688-3082
consulate(s) general: Calgary, Halifax, Montreal, Quebec, Toronto, Vancouver, Winnipeg
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing two vertical bands of red (hoist and fly side, half width), with white square between them; an 11-pointed red maple leaf is centered in the white square; the official colors of Canada are red and white
   Economy    Canada
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing As an affluent, high-tech industrial society in the trillion-dollar class, Canada resembles the US in its market-oriented economic system, pattern of production, and affluent living standards. Since World War II, the impressive growth of the manufacturing, mining, and service sectors has transformed the nation from a largely rural economy into one primarily industrial and urban. The 1989 US-Canada Free Trade Agreement (FTA) and the 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) (which includes Mexico) touched off a dramatic increase in trade and economic integration with the US. Given its great natural resources, skilled labor force, and modern capital plant, Canada enjoys solid economic prospects. Top-notch fiscal management has produced consecutive balanced budgets since 1997, although public debate continues over the equitable distribution of federal funds to the Canadian provinces. Exports account for roughly a third of GDP. Canada enjoys a substantial trade surplus with its principal trading partner, the US, which absorbs 80% of Canadian exports each year. Canada is the US's largest foreign supplier of energy, including oil, gas, uranium, and electric power. During 2007, Canada enjoyed good economic growth, moderate inflation, and the lowest unemployment rate in more than three decades.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $1.271 trillion (2007 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
Definition Field Listing $1.432 trillion (2007 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 2.7% (2007 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $38,600 (2007 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing agriculture: 2.1%
industry: 28.8%
services: 69.1% (2007 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 17.95 million (2007 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing agriculture 2%, manufacturing 13%, construction 6%, services 76%, other 3% (2006)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 6% (2007 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing 10.8%; note - this figure is the Low Income Cut-Off (LICO), a calculation that results in higher figures than found in many comparable economies; Canada does not have an official poverty line (2005)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing lowest 10%: 2.6%
highest 10%: 24.8% (2000)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing 32.1 (2005)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 2.1% (2007 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 22.6% of GDP (2007 est.)
Definition Field Listing revenues: $569.3 billion
expenditures: $556.2 billion (2007 est.)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 64.2% of GDP (2007 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing wheat, barley, oilseed, tobacco, fruits, vegetables; dairy products; forest products; fish
Definition Field Listing transportation equipment, chemicals, processed and unprocessed minerals, food products, wood and paper products, fish products, petroleum and natural gas
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0.3% (2007 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 609.6 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 540.2 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing 42.93 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing 19.33 billion kWh (2005)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 3.31 million bbl/day (2007 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 2.29 million bbl/day (2005)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 2.274 million bbl/day (2004)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 1.185 million bbl/day (2004)
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 178.8 billion bbl
note: includes oil sands (1 January 2006 est.)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 178.2 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 92.76 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 101.9 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 9.403 billion cu m (2005)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 1.537 trillion cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $12.67 billion (2007 est.)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $431.1 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing motor vehicles and parts, industrial machinery, aircraft, telecommunications equipment; chemicals, plastics, fertilizers; wood pulp, timber, crude petroleum, natural gas, electricity, aluminum
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing US 79.3%, UK 2.8%, China 2.1% (2007)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $386.4 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing machinery and equipment, motor vehicles and parts, crude oil, chemicals, electricity, durable consumer goods
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing US 54.4%, China 9.4%, Mexico 4.2% (2007)
Economic aid - donor:
Definition Field Listing ODA, $3.9 billion (2007)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $41.08 billion (2007 est.)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $758.6 billion (30 June 2007)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $527.4 billion (2007 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $514.7 billion (2007 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $1.481 trillion (2005)
Currency (code):
Definition Field Listing Canadian dollar (CAD)
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing Canadian dollars per US dollar - 1.0724 (2007), 1.1334 (2006), 1.2118 (2005), 1.301 (2004), 1.4011 (2003)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing 1 April - 31 March
   Communications    Canada
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 21 million (2006)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 18.749 million (2006)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing general assessment: excellent service provided by modern technology
domestic: domestic satellite system with about 300 earth stations
international: country code - 1; submarine cables provide links to the US and Europe; satellite earth stations - 7 (5 Intelsat - 4 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean, and 2 Intersputnik - Atlantic Ocean region) (2007)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing AM 245, FM 582, shortwave 6 (2004)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing 80 (plus many repeaters) (1997)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing .ca
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 4.196 million (2007)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 28 million (2007)
   Transportation    Canada
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 1,343 (2007)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing total: 509
over 3,047 m: 18
2,438 to 3,047 m: 16
1,524 to 2,437 m: 149
914 to 1,523 m: 248
under 914 m: 78 (2007)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing total: 834
1,524 to 2,437 m: 68
914 to 1,523 m: 356
under 914 m: 410 (2007)
Definition Field Listing 11 (2007)
Definition Field Listing crude and refined oil 23,564 km; liquid petroleum gas 74,980 km (2006)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 48,068 km
standard gauge: 48,068 km 1.435-m gauge (2006)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 1,042,300 km
paved: 415,600 km (includes 17,000 km of expressways)
unpaved: 626,700 km (2006)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 636 km
note: Saint Lawrence Seaway of 3,769 km, including the Saint Lawrence River of 3,058 km, shared with United States (2007)
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 166 ships (1000 GRT or over) 2,162,760 GRT/2,771,653 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 60, cargo 8, carrier 1, chemical tanker 9, combination ore/oil 1, container 2, passenger 6, passenger/cargo 62, petroleum tanker 12, roll on/roll off 5
foreign-owned: 17 (Germany 3, Netherlands 1, Norway 3, US 10)
registered in other countries: 200 (Australia 9, Bahamas 77, Barbados 12, Cambodia 2, Cyprus 2, Denmark 1, Honduras 1, Hong Kong 42, Liberia 4, Malta 2, Marshall Islands 5, Netherlands 1, Norway 10, Panama 19, Spain 4, St Vincent and the Grenadines 2, Taiwan 2, Vanuatu 5) (2008)
Ports and terminals:
Definition Field Listing Fraser River Port, Halifax, Hamilton, Montreal, Port-Cartier, Quebec City, Saint John (New Brunswick), Sept-Isles, Vancouver
   Military    Canada
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing Canadian Forces: Land Forces Command (LFC), Maritime Command (MARCOM), Air Command (AIRCOM), Canada Command (homeland security) (2008)
Military service age and obligation:
Definition Field Listing 17 years of age for male and female voluntary military service (with parental consent); 16 years of age for reserve and military college applicants; Canadian citizenship or permanent residence status required; maximum 34 years of age; service obligation 3-9 years (2008)
Manpower available for military service:
Definition Field Listing males age 16-49: 8,072,010
females age 16-49: 7,813,462 (2008 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing males age 16-49: 6,646,281
females age 16-49: 6,417,924 (2008 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
Definition Field Listing male: 227,435
female: 215,556 (2008 est.)
Military expenditures:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 1.1% of GDP (2005 est.)
   Transnational Issues    Canada
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing managed maritime boundary disputes with the US at Dixon Entrance, Beaufort Sea, Strait of Juan de Fuca, and the Gulf of Maine including the disputed Machias Seal Island and North Rock; Canada, the US, and other countries dispute the status of the Northwest Passage; US works closely with Canada to intensify security measures for monitoring and controlling legal and illegal movement of people, transport, and commodities across the international border; sovereignty dispute with Denmark over Hans Island in the Kennedy Channel between Ellesmere Island and Greenland; commencing the collection of technical evidence for submission to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf in support of claims for continental shelf beyond 200 nautical miles from its declared baselines in the Arctic, as stipulated in Article 76, paragraph 8, of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing illicit producer of cannabis for the domestic drug market and export to US; use of hydroponics technology permits growers to plant large quantities of high-quality marijuana indoors; increasing ecstasy production, some of which is destined for the US; vulnerable to narcotics money laundering because of its mature financial services sector

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Source : CIA's World Fact Book 2008

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