source : World Fact Book 2008 (October 2008)


   Introduction    Armenia
Definition Field Listing Armenia prides itself on being the first nation to formally adopt Christianity (early 4th century). Despite periods of autonomy, over the centuries Armenia came under the sway of various empires including the Roman, Byzantine, Arab, Persian, and Ottoman. During World War I in the western portion of Armenia, Ottoman Turkey instituted a policy of forced resettlement coupled with other harsh practices that resulted in an estimated 1 million Armenian deaths. The eastern area of Armenia was ceded by the Ottomans to Russia in 1828; this portion declared its independence in 1918, but was conquered by the Soviet Red Army in 1920. Armenian leaders remain preoccupied by the long conflict with Muslim Azerbaijan over Nagorno-Karabakh, a primarily Armenian-populated region, assigned to Soviet Azerbaijan in the 1920s by Moscow. Armenia and Azerbaijan began fighting over the area in 1988; the struggle escalated after both countries attained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. By May 1994, when a cease-fire took hold, Armenian forces held not only Nagorno-Karabakh but also a significant portion of Azerbaijan proper. The economies of both sides have been hurt by their inability to make substantial progress toward a peaceful resolution. Turkey imposed an economic blockade on Armenia and closed the common border because of the Armenian separatists' control of Nagorno-Karabakh and surrounding areas.
   Geography    Armenia
Definition Field Listing Southwestern Asia, east of Turkey
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing 40 00 N, 45 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing Asia
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 29,743 sq km
land: 28,454 sq km
water: 1,289 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing slightly smaller than Maryland
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing total: 1,254 km
border countries: Azerbaijan-proper 566 km, Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave 221 km, Georgia 164 km, Iran 35 km, Turkey 268 km
Definition Field Listing 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing none (landlocked)
Definition Field Listing highland continental, hot summers, cold winters
Definition Field Listing Armenian Highland with mountains; little forest land; fast flowing rivers; good soil in Aras River valley
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing lowest point: Debed River 400 m
highest point: Aragats Lerrnagagat' 4,090 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing small deposits of gold, copper, molybdenum, zinc, bauxite
Land use:
Definition Field Listing arable land: 16.78%
permanent crops: 2.01%
other: 81.21% (2005)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing 2,860 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources:
Definition Field Listing 10.5 cu km (1997)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
Definition Field Listing total: 2.95 cu km/yr (30%/4%/66%)
per capita: 977 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing occasionally severe earthquakes; droughts
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing soil pollution from toxic chemicals such as DDT; the energy crisis of the 1990s led to deforestation when citizens scavenged for firewood; pollution of Hrazdan (Razdan) and Aras Rivers; the draining of Sevana Lich (Lake Sevan), a result of its use as a source for hydropower, threatens drinking water supplies; restart of Metsamor nuclear power plant in spite of its location in a seismically active zone
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing landlocked in the Lesser Caucasus Mountains; Sevana Lich (Lake Sevan) is the largest lake in this mountain range
   People    Armenia
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 2,968,586 (July 2008 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing 0-14 years: 18.7% (male 296,401/female 259,594)
15-64 years: 70.3% (male 975,438/female 1,111,989)
65 years and over: 11% (male 128,398/female 196,766) (2008 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing total: 31.1 years
male: 28.4 years
female: 34 years (2008 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing -0.077% (2008 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 12.53 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 8.34 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order -4.95 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing at birth: 1.15 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.14 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.88 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.65 male(s)/female
total population: 0.89 male(s)/female (2008 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 20.94 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 25.82 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 15.33 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total population: 72.4 years
male: 68.79 years
female: 76.55 years (2008 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 1.35 children born/woman (2008 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0.1% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 2,600 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order fewer than 200 (2003 est.)
Definition Field Listing noun: Armenian(s)
adjective: Armenian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing Armenian 97.9%, Yezidi (Kurd) 1.3%, Russian 0.5%, other 0.3% (2001 census)
Definition Field Listing Armenian Apostolic 94.7%, other Christian 4%, Yezidi (monotheist with elements of nature worship) 1.3%
Definition Field Listing Armenian 97.7%, Yezidi 1%, Russian 0.9%, other 0.4% (2001 census)
Definition Field Listing definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.4%
male: 99.7%
female: 99.2% (2001 census)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
Definition Field Listing total: 11 years
male: 11 years
female: 12 years (2006)
Education expenditures:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 3.2% of GDP (2001)
   Government    Armenia
Country name:
Definition Field Listing conventional long form: Republic of Armenia
conventional short form: Armenia
local long form: Hayastani Hanrapetut'yun
local short form: Hayastan
former: Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, Armenian Republic
Government type:
Definition Field Listing republic
Definition Field Listing name: Yerevan
geographic coordinates: 40 10 N, 44 30 E
time difference: UTC+4 (9 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing 11 provinces (marzer, singular - marz); Aragatsotn, Ararat, Armavir, Geghark'unik', Kotayk', Lorri, Shirak, Syunik', Tavush, Vayots' Dzor, Yerevan
Definition Field Listing 21 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing Independence Day, 21 September (1991)
Definition Field Listing adopted by nationwide referendum 5 July 1995; amendments adopted through a nationwide referendum 27 November 2005
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Definition Field Listing 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing chief of state: President Serzh SARGSIAN (since 9 April 2008)
head of government: Prime Minister Tigran SARGSIAN (since 9 April 2008)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 19 February 2008 (next to be held February 2013); prime minister appointed by the president based on majority or plurality support in parliament; the prime minister and Council of Ministers must resign if the National Assembly refuses to accept their program
election results: Serzh SARGSIAN elected president; percent of vote - Serzh SARGSIAN 52.9%, Levon TER-PETROSSIAN 21.5%, Artur BAGHDASARIAN 16.7%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing unicameral National Assembly (Parliament) or Azgayin Zhoghov (131 seats; members elected by popular vote, 90 members elected by party list and 41 by direct vote; to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 12 May 2007 (next to be held in the spring of 2012)
election results: percent of vote by party - HHK 33.9%, Prosperous Armenia 15.1%, ARF (Dashnak) 13.2%, Rule of Law 7.1%, Heritage Party 6%, other 24.7%; seats by party - HHK 64, Prosperous Armenia 18, ARF (Dashnak) 16, Rule of Law 9, Heritage Party 7, independent 17
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing Constitutional Court; Court of Cassation (Appeals Court)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing Armenian National Movement or ANM [Ararat ZURABYAN]; Armenian People's Party [Tigran KARAPETYAN]; Armenian Ramkavar Azadagan Party Alliance or HRAK (includes former Dashink Party, National Revival Party, and Ramkavar Liberal Party); Armenian Revolutionary Federation ("Dashnak" Party) or ARF [Hrant MARKARYAN]; Heritage Party [Raffi HOVHANNISYAN]; National Democratic Party [Shavarsh KOCHARIAN]; National Democratic Union or NDU [Vazgen MANUKIAN]; National Unity Party [Artashes GEGHAMYAN]; People's Party of Armenia [Stepan DEMIRCHYAN]; Prosperous Armenia [Gagik TSAROUKYAN]; Republic Party [Aram SARKISYAN]; Republican Party of Armenia or HHK [Serzh SARGSIAN]; Rule of Law Party (Orinats Yerkir) [Artur BAGHDASARIAN]; Union of Constitutional Rights [Hrant KHACHATURYAN]; United Labor Party [Gurgen ARSENYAN]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing Aylentrank (Impeachment) [Nikol PASHINYAN]; Yerkrapah Union [Manvel GRIGORIAN]
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing ACCT (observer), ADB, BSEC, CE, CIS, CSTO, EAEC (observer), EAPC, EBRD, FAO, GCTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM (observer), OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing chief of mission: Ambassador Tatoul MARKARIAN
chancery: 2225 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 319-1976
FAX: [1] (202) 319-2982
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph S. PENNINGTON
embassy: 1 American Ave., Yerevan 0082
mailing address: American Embassy Yerevan, US Department of State, 7020 Yerevan Place, Washington, DC 20521-7020
telephone: [374](10) 464-700
FAX: [374](10) 464-742
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing three equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue, and orange
   Economy    Armenia
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing Since the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991, Armenia has made progress in implementing many economic reforms including privatization, price reforms, and prudent fiscal policies. The conflict with Azerbaijan over the ethnic Armenian-dominated region of Nagorno-Karabakh contributed to a severe economic decline in the early 1990s. By 1994, however, the Armenian Government launched an ambitious IMF-sponsored economic liberalization program that resulted in positive growth rates. Economic growth has averaged over 13% in recent years. Armenia has managed to reduce poverty, slash inflation, stabilize its currency, and privatize most small- and medium-sized enterprises. Under the old Soviet central planning system, Armenia developed a modern industrial sector, supplying machine tools, textiles, and other manufactured goods to sister republics, in exchange for raw materials and energy. Armenia has since switched to small-scale agriculture and away from the large agroindustrial complexes of the Soviet era. Nuclear power plants built at Metsamor in the 1970s were closed following the 1988 Spitak Earthquake, though they sustained no damage. One of the two reactors was re-opened in 1995, but the Armenian government is under international pressure to close it due to concerns that the Soviet era design lacks important safeguards. Metsamor provides 40 percent of the country's electricity - hydropower accounts for about one-fourth. Economic ties with Russia remain close, especially in the energy sector. The electricity distribution system was privatized in 2002 and bought by Russia's RAO-UES in 2005. Construction of a pipeline to deliver natural gas from Iran to Armenia is halfway completed and is scheduled to be commissioned by January 2009. Armenia has some mineral deposits (copper, gold, bauxite). Pig iron, unwrought copper, and other nonferrous metals are Armenia's highest valued exports. Armenia's severe trade imbalance has been offset somewhat by international aid, remittances from Armenians working abroad, and foreign direct investment. Armenia joined the WTO in January 2003. The government made some improvements in tax and customs administration in recent years, but anti-corruption measures will be more difficult to implement. Despite strong economic growth, Armenia's unemployment rate remains high. Armenia will need to pursue additional economic reforms in order to improve its economic competitiveness and to build on recent improvements in poverty and unemployment, especially given its economic isolation from two of its nearest neighbors, Turkey and Azerbaijan.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $17.17 billion (2007 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
Definition Field Listing $7.974 billion (2007 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 13.7% (2007 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $5,800 (2007 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing agriculture: 17.2%
industry: 36.4%
services: 46.4% (2007 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 1.2 million (2007 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing agriculture: 46.2%
industry: 15.6%
services: 38.2% (2006 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 7.1% (2007 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing 26.5% (2006 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing lowest 10%: 1.6%
highest 10%: 41.3% (2004)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing 37 (2006)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 4.4% (2007 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 33.6% of GDP (2007 est.)
Definition Field Listing revenues: $1.666 billion
expenditures: $1.735 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2007 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing fruit (especially grapes), vegetables; livestock
Definition Field Listing diamond-processing, metal-cutting machine tools, forging-pressing machines, electric motors, tires, knitted wear, hosiery, shoes, silk fabric, chemicals, trucks, instruments, microelectronics, jewelry manufacturing, software development, food processing, brandy
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 3.2% (2007 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 5.941 billion kWh (2006)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 5.454 billion kWh (2006)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing 754.5 million kWh; note - exports an unknown quantity to Georgia; includes exports to Nagorno-Karabakh region in Azerbaijan (2006)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing 354.9 million kWh; note - imports an unknown quantity from Iran (2006)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0 bbl/day (2005)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 40,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0 bbl/day (2004)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 41,240 bbl/day (2004)
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0 bbl (1 January 2006 est.)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 2.2 billion cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 2.2 billion cu m (2007)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0 cu m (1 January 2006)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order -$571.4 million (2007 est.)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $1.2 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing pig iron, unwrought copper, nonferrous metals, diamonds, mineral products, foodstuffs, energy
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing Russia 17.5%, Germany 14.7%, Netherlands 13.5%, Belgium 8.7%, Georgia 7.6%, US 6.6%, Switzerland 4.3%, Bulgaria 4.1%, Ukraine 4% (2007)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $2.807 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing natural gas, petroleum, tobacco products, foodstuffs, diamonds
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing Russia 15.1%, Ukraine 7.7%, Kazakhstan 7.4%, Germany 6.8%, China 6%, France 4.6%, US 4.5%, Iraq 4.3% (2007)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing ODA, $180 million (2007)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $1.657 billion (December 2007 est.)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $1.372 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $42.8 million (2005)
Currency (code):
Definition Field Listing dram (AMD)
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing drams per US dollar - 344.06 (2007), 414.69 (2006), 457.69 (2005), 533.45 (2004), 578.76 (2003)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing calendar year
   Communications    Armenia
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 603,900 (2006)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 1,185,400 (2006)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing general assessment: telecommunications investments have made major inroads in modernizing and upgrading the outdated telecommunications network inherited from the Soviet era; now 100% privately owned and undergoing modernization and expansion; mobile-cellular services monopoly terminated in late 2004 and a second provider began operations in mid-2005
domestic: reliable modern landline and mobile-cellular services are available across Yerevan in major cities and towns; significant but ever-shrinking gaps remain in mobile-cellular coverage in rural areas
international: country code - 374; Yerevan is connected to the Trans-Asia-Europe fiber-optic cable through Iran; additional international service is available by microwave radio relay and landline connections to the other countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States, through the Moscow international switch, and by satellite to the rest of the world; satellite earth stations - 3 (2007)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing AM 9, FM 16, shortwave 1 (2006)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing 48 (private television stations alongside 2 public networks; major Russian channels widely available) (2006)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing .am
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 8,270 (2007)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 172,800 (2006)
   Transportation    Armenia
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 12 (2007)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing total: 10
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2007)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing total: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2007)
Definition Field Listing gas 2,036 km (2007)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 839 km
broad gauge: 839 km 1.520-m gauge (828 km electrified)
note: some lines are out of service (2006)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 7,700 km
paved: 7,700 km (includes 1,561 km of expressways) (2006)
   Military    Armenia
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing Armed Forces: Ground Forces, Nagorno-Karabakh Self Defense Force (NKSDF), Air Force and Air Defense (2008)
Military service age and obligation:
Definition Field Listing 18-27 years of age for voluntary or compulsory military service; 2-year conscript service obligation (2007)
Manpower available for military service:
Definition Field Listing males age 16-49: 809,576
females age 16-49: 870,864 (2008 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing males age 16-49: 637,776
females age 16-49: 729,846 (2008 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
Definition Field Listing male: 30,548
female: 29,170 (2008 est.)
Military expenditures:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 6.5% of GDP (FY01)
   Transnational Issues    Armenia
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing Armenia supports ethnic Armenian secessionists in Nagorno-Karabakh and since the early 1990s, has militarily occupied 16% of Azerbaijan - Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) continues to mediate dispute; over 800,000 mostly ethnic Azerbaijanis were driven from the occupied lands and Armenia; about 230,000 ethnic Armenians were driven from their homes in Azerbaijan into Armenia and Nagorno-Karabakh; Azerbaijan seeks transit route through Armenia to connect to Naxcivan exclave; border with Turkey remains closed over Nagorno-Karabakh dispute; ethnic Armenian groups in Javakheti region of Georgia seek greater autonomy; Armenians continue to emigrate, primarily to Russia, seeking employment
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
Definition Field Listing refugees (country of origin): 113,295 (Azerbaijan)
IDPs: 8,400 (conflict with Azerbaijan over Nagorno-Karabakh, majority have returned home since 1994 ceasefire) (2007)
Trafficking in persons:
Definition Field Listing current situation: Armenia is primarily a source country for women and girls trafficked to the UAE and Turkey for the purpose of commercial sexual exploitation; Armenian men and women are trafficked to Turkey and Russia for the purpose of forced labor
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Armenia is placed on the Tier 2 Watch List for a fourth consecutive year; its efforts to increase compliance with the minimum standards were assessed based on its commitments to undertake future actions, particularly in the areas of improving victim protection and assistance; while the government elevated anti-trafficking responsibilities to the ministerial level, adopted a new National Action Plan, and drafted a National Referral Mechanism, it has yet to show tangible progress in identifying and protecting victims or in tackling trafficking complicity of government officials; the Armenian Government made some notable improvements in its anti-trafficking law enforcement efforts, but it failed to demonstrate evidence of investigations, prosecutions, convictions, and sentences of officials complicit in trafficking (2008)
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing illicit cultivation of small amount of cannabis for domestic consumption; minor transit point for illicit drugs - mostly opium and hashish - moving from Southwest Asia to Russia and to a lesser extent the rest of Europe

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Countries of the World - Detailed information about Armenia -
Source : CIA's World Fact Book 2008

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