source : World Fact Book 2008 (October 2008)


   Introduction    Algeria
Definition Field Listing After more than a century of rule by France, Algerians fought through much of the 1950s to achieve independence in 1962. Algeria's primary political party, the National Liberation Front (FLN), has dominated politics ever since. Many Algerians in the subsequent generation were not satisfied, however, and moved to counter the FLN's centrality in Algerian politics. The surprising first round success of the Islamic Salvation Front (FIS) in the December 1991 balloting spurred the Algerian army to intervene and postpone the second round of elections to prevent what the secular elite feared would be an extremist-led government from assuming power. The army began a crackdown on the FIS that spurred FIS supporters to begin attacking government targets. The government later allowed elections featuring pro-government and moderate religious-based parties, but did not appease the activists who progressively widened their attacks. The fighting escalated into an insurgency, which saw intense fighting between 1992-98 and which resulted in over 100,000 deaths - many attributed to indiscriminate massacres of villagers by extremists. The government gained the upper hand by the late-1990s and FIS's armed wing, the Islamic Salvation Army, disbanded in January 2000. However, small numbers of armed militants persist in confronting government forces and conducting ambushes and occasional attacks on villages. The army placed Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA in the presidency in 1999 in a fraudulent election but claimed neutrality in his 2004 landslide reelection victory. Longstanding problems continue to face BOUTEFLIKA in his second term, including the ethnic minority Berbers' ongoing autonomy campaign, large-scale unemployment, a shortage of housing, unreliable electrical and water supplies, government inefficiencies and corruption, and the continuing activities of extremist militants. The 2006 merger of the Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat (GSPC) with al-Qaida (followed by a name change to al-Qaida in the Lands of the Islamic Maghreb) signaled an increase in bombings, including high-profile, mass-casualty suicide attacks targeted against the Algerian government and Western interests. Algeria must also diversify its petroleum-based economy, which has yielded a large cash reserve but which has not been used to redress Algeria's many social and infrastructure problems.
   Geography    Algeria
Definition Field Listing Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Morocco and Tunisia
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing 28 00 N, 3 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing Africa
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 2,381,740 sq km
land: 2,381,740 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Texas
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing total: 6,343 km
border countries: Libya 982 km, Mali 1,376 km, Mauritania 463 km, Morocco 1,559 km, Niger 956 km, Tunisia 965 km, Western Sahara 42 km
Definition Field Listing 998 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive fishing zone: 32-52 nm
Definition Field Listing arid to semiarid; mild, wet winters with hot, dry summers along coast; drier with cold winters and hot summers on high plateau; sirocco is a hot, dust/sand-laden wind especially common in summer
Definition Field Listing mostly high plateau and desert; some mountains; narrow, discontinuous coastal plain
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing lowest point: Chott Melrhir -40 m
highest point: Tahat 3,003 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, uranium, lead, zinc
Land use:
Definition Field Listing arable land: 3.17%
permanent crops: 0.28%
other: 96.55% (2005)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing 5,690 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources:
Definition Field Listing 14.3 cu km (1997)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
Definition Field Listing total: 6.07 cu km/yr (22%/13%/65%)
per capita: 185 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing mountainous areas subject to severe earthquakes; mudslides and floods in rainy season
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing soil erosion from overgrazing and other poor farming practices; desertification; dumping of raw sewage, petroleum refining wastes, and other industrial effluents is leading to the pollution of rivers and coastal waters; Mediterranean Sea, in particular, becoming polluted from oil wastes, soil erosion, and fertilizer runoff; inadequate supplies of potable water
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing second-largest country in Africa (after Sudan)
   People    Algeria
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 33,769,668 (July 2008 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing 0-14 years: 26.3% (male 4,528,919/female 4,349,746)
15-64 years: 68.7% (male 11,699,701/female 11,509,619)
65 years and over: 5% (male 779,467/female 902,217) (2008 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing total: 26 years
male: 25.8 years
female: 26.2 years (2008 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing 1.209% (2008 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 17.03 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 4.62 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order -0.31 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2008 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 28.75 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 31.95 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 25.39 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total population: 73.77 years
male: 72.13 years
female: 75.49 years (2008 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 1.82 children born/woman (2008 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0.1%; note - no country specific models provided (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 9,100 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order fewer than 500 (2003 est.)
Definition Field Listing noun: Algerian(s)
adjective: Algerian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing Arab-Berber 99%, European less than 1%
note: almost all Algerians are Berber in origin, not Arab; the minority who identify themselves as Berber live mostly in the mountainous region of Kabylie east of Algiers; the Berbers are also Muslim but identify with their Berber rather than Arab cultural heritage; Berbers have long agitated, sometimes violently, for autonomy; the government is unlikely to grant autonomy but has offered to begin sponsoring teaching Berber language in schools
Definition Field Listing Sunni Muslim (state religion) 99%, Christian and Jewish 1%
Definition Field Listing Arabic (official), French, Berber dialects
Definition Field Listing definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 69.9%
male: 79.6%
female: 60.1% (2002 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
Definition Field Listing total: 13 years
male: 13 years
female: 13 years (2005)
Education expenditures:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 5.1% of GDP (1999)
   Government    Algeria
Country name:
Definition Field Listing conventional long form: People's Democratic Republic of Algeria
conventional short form: Algeria
local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Jaza'iriyah ad Dimuqratiyah ash Sha'biyah
local short form: Al Jaza'ir
Government type:
Definition Field Listing republic
Definition Field Listing name: Algiers
geographic coordinates: 36 45 N, 3 03 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing 48 provinces (wilayat, singular - wilaya); Adrar, Ain Defla, Ain Temouchent, Alger, Annaba, Batna, Bechar, Bejaia, Biskra, Blida, Bordj Bou Arreridj, Bouira, Boumerdes, Chlef, Constantine, Djelfa, El Bayadh, El Oued, El Tarf, Ghardaia, Guelma, Illizi, Jijel, Khenchela, Laghouat, Mascara, Medea, Mila, Mostaganem, M'Sila, Naama, Oran, Ouargla, Oum el Bouaghi, Relizane, Saida, Setif, Sidi Bel Abbes, Skikda, Souk Ahras, Tamanghasset, Tebessa, Tiaret, Tindouf, Tipaza, Tissemsilt, Tizi Ouzou, Tlemcen
Definition Field Listing 5 July 1962 (from France)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing Revolution Day, 1 November (1954)
Definition Field Listing 8 September 1963; revised 19 November 1976, effective 22 November 1976; revised 3 November 1988, 23 February 1989, and 28 November 1996
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing socialist, based on French and Islamic law; judicial review of legislative acts in ad hoc Constitutional Council composed of various public officials, including several Supreme Court justices; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Definition Field Listing 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing chief of state: President Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA (since 28 April 1999)
head of government: Prime Minister Ahmed OUYAHIA (since 23 June 2008)
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 8 April 2004 (next to be held in April 2009); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA reelected president for second term; percent of vote - Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA 85%, Ali BENFLIS 6.4%, Abdellah DJABALLAH 5%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing bicameral Parliament consists of the National People's Assembly or Al-Majlis Al-Shabi Al-Watani (389 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and the Council of Nations (Senate) (144 seats; one-third of the members appointed by the president, two-thirds elected by indirect vote; to serve six-year terms; the constitution requires half the council to be renewed every three years)
elections: National People's Assembly - last held 17 May 2007 (next to be held in 2012); Council of Nations (Senate) - last held 28 December 2006 (next to be held in 2009)
election results: National People's Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - FLN 136, RND 61, MSP 52, PT 26, RCD 19, FNA 13, other 49, independents 33; Council of Nations - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - FLN 29, RND 12, MSP 3, RCD 1, independents 3, presidential appointees (unknown affiliation) 24; note - Council seating reflects the number of replaced council members rather than the whole Council
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing Ahd 54 [Ali Fauzi REBAINE]; Algerian National Front or FNA [Moussa TOUATI]; Islamic Salvation Front or FIS (outlawed April 1992) [Ali BELHADJ, Dr. Abassi MADANI, Rabeh KEBIR]; National Democratic Rally (Rassemblement National Democratique) or RND [Ahmed OUYAHIA]; National Entente Movement or MEN [Ali BOUKHAZNA]; National Liberation Front or FLN [Abdelaziz BELKHADEM, secretary general]; National Reform Movement or Islah (formerly MRN) [Mohamed BOULAHIA]; National Renewal Party or PRA [Mohamed BENSMAIL]; Rally for Culture and Democracy or RCD [Said SADI]; Renaissance Movement or EnNahda Movement [Fatah RABEI]; Socialist Forces Front or FFS [Hocine Ait AHMED]; Social Liberal Party or PSL [Ahmed KHELIL]; Society of Peace Movement or MSP [Boudjerra SOLTANI]; Workers Party or PT [Louisa HANOUNE]
note: a law banning political parties based on religion was enacted in March 1997
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing The Algerian Human Rights League or LADDH [Hocine ZEHOUANE]; SOS Disparus [Nacera DUTOUR]; Somoud [Ali MERABET]
International organization participation:
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing chief of mission: Ambassador Amine KHERBI
chancery: 2118 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 265-2800
FAX: [1] (202) 667-2174
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing chief of mission: Ambassador Robert S. FORD
embassy: 5 Chemin Cheikh Bachir, El-Ibrahimi, El-Biar 16000 Algiers
mailing address: B. P. 408, Alger-Gare, 16030 Algiers
telephone: [213] 70-08-2000
FAX: [213] 21-60-7355
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing two equal vertical bands of green (hoist side) and white; a red, five-pointed star within a red crescent centered over the two-color boundary
note: the crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam (the state religion)
   Economy    Algeria
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing The hydrocarbons sector is the backbone of the economy, accounting for roughly 60% of budget revenues, 30% of GDP, and over 95% of export earnings. Algeria has the eighth-largest reserves of natural gas in the world and is the fourth-largest gas exporter; it ranks 14th in oil reserves. Sustained high oil prices in recent years have helped improve Algeria's financial and macroeconomic indicators. Algeria is running substantial trade surpluses and building up record foreign exchange reserves. Algeria has decreased its external debt to less than 10% of GDP after repaying its Paris Club and London Club debt in 2006. Real GDP has risen due to higher oil output and increased government spending. The government's continued efforts to diversify the economy by attracting foreign and domestic investment outside the energy sector, however, has had little success in reducing high unemployment and improving living standards. Structural reform within the economy, such as development of the banking sector and the construction of infrastructure, moves ahead slowly hampered by corruption and bureaucratic resistance.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $222.3 billion (2007 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
Definition Field Listing $131.6 billion (2007 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 4.5% (2007 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $6,700 (2007 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing agriculture: 8.2%
industry: 61.5%
services: 30.3% (2007 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 9.38 million (2007 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing agriculture 14%, industry 13.4%, construction and public works 10%, trade 14.6%, government 32%, other 16% (2003 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 11.8% (2007 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing 25% (2005 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing lowest 10%: 2.8%
highest 10%: 26.8% (1995)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing 35.3 (1995)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 3.5% (2007 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 24.5% of GDP (2007 est.)
Definition Field Listing revenues: $57.03 billion
expenditures: $40.53 billion (2007 est.)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 18% of GDP (2007 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing wheat, barley, oats, grapes, olives, citrus, fruits; sheep, cattle
Definition Field Listing petroleum, natural gas, light industries, mining, electrical, petrochemical, food processing
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 5% (2007 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 31.91 billion kWh (2005 est.)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 27.52 billion kWh (2005 est.)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing 275 million kWh (2005 est.)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing 359 million kWh (2005 est.)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 1.358 million bbl/day (2007 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 250,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 1.724 million bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 12,390 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 14.68 billion bbl (1 January 2007 est.)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 84.4 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 21.8 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 62.6 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0 cu m (2005)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 4.359 trillion cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $32.05 billion (2007 est.)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $60.51 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing petroleum, natural gas, and petroleum products 97%
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing US 29.4%, Italy 13.8%, Spain 9.6%, Canada 8.4%, France 7.4%, Netherlands 4.9%, Brazil 4.2% (2007)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $26.25 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing capital goods, foodstuffs, consumer goods
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing France 19.1%, China 9.2%, Italy 8.7%, Spain 6.1%, US 5.6%, Germany 5.5%, Turkey 4.2% (2007)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing $370.6 million (2005 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $110.6 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $3.957 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $12.04 billion (2007 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $851 million (2007 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $NA
Currency (code):
Definition Field Listing Algerian dinar (DZD)
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing Algerian dinars per US dollar - 69.9 (2007), 72.647 (2006), 73.276 (2005), 72.061 (2004), 77.395 (2003)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing calendar year
   Communications    Algeria
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 3.068 million (2007)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 27.563 million (2007)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing general assessment: a weak network of fixed-main lines, which remains low at less than 10 telephones per 100 persons, is partially offset by the rapid increase in mobile cellular subscribership; in 2007, combined fixed-line and mobile telephone density surpassed 90 telephones per 100 persons
domestic: privatization of Algeria's telecommunications sector began in 2000; three mobile cellular licenses have been issued and, in 2005, a consortium led by Egypt's Orascom Telecom won a 15-year license to build and operate a fixed-line network in Algeria; the license will allow Orascom to develop high-speed data and other specialized services and contribute to meeting the large unfulfilled demand for basic residential telephony; Internet broadband services began in 2003 with approximately 200,000 subscribers in 2006
international: country code - 213; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-4 fiber- optic submarine cable system that provides links to Europe, the Middle East, and Asia; microwave radio relay to Italy, France, Spain, Morocco, and Tunisia; coaxial cable to Morocco and Tunisia; participant in Medarabtel; satellite earth stations - 51 (Intelsat, Intersputnik, and Arabsat) (2007)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing AM 25, FM 1, shortwave 8 (1999)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing 46 (plus 216 repeaters) (1995)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing .dz
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 2,077 (2007)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 3.5 million (2007)
   Transportation    Algeria
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 150 (2007)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing total: 52
over 3,047 m: 10
2,438 to 3,047 m: 27
1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 1 (2007)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing total: 98
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 26
914 to 1,523 m: 44
under 914 m: 25 (2007)
Definition Field Listing 2 (2007)
Definition Field Listing condensate 1,532 km; gas 13,861 km; liquid petroleum gas 2,408 km; oil 6,878 km (2007)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 3,973 km
standard gauge: 2,888 km 1.435-m gauge (283 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 1,085 km 1.055-m gauge (2006)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 108,302 km
paved: 76,028 km
unpaved: 32,274 km (2004)
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 36 ships (1000 GRT or over) 711,624 GRT/726,711 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 6, cargo 8, chemical tanker 2, liquefied gas 10, passenger/cargo 3, petroleum tanker 4, roll on/roll off 2, specialized tanker 1
foreign-owned: 18 (Jordan 4, UK 14) (2008)
Ports and terminals:
Definition Field Listing Algiers, Annaba, Arzew, Bejaia, Djendjene, Jijel, Mostaganem, Oran, Skikda
   Military    Algeria
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing National Popular Army (ANP; includes Land Forces), Algerian National Navy (MRA), Air Force (QJJ), Territorial Air Defense Force (2005)
Military service age and obligation:
Definition Field Listing 19-30 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation - 18 months (6 months basic training, 12 months civil projects) (2006)
Manpower available for military service:
Definition Field Listing males age 16-49: 9,736,757
females age 16-49: 9,590,978 (2008 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing males age 16-49: 8,141,864
females age 16-49: 8,215,895 (2008 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
Definition Field Listing male: 374,365
female: 360,942 (2008 est.)
Military expenditures:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 3.3% of GDP (2006)
   Transnational Issues    Algeria
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing Algeria, and many other states, rejects Moroccan administration of Western Sahara; the Polisario Front, exiled in Algeria, represents the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic; Algeria's border with Morocco remains an irritant to bilateral relations, each nation accusing the other of harboring militants and arms smuggling; Algeria remains concerned about armed bandits operating throughout the Sahel who sometimes destabilize southern Algerian towns; dormant disputes include Libyan claims of about 32,000 sq km still reflected on its maps of southeastern Algeria and the FLN's assertions of a claim to Chirac Pastures in southeastern Morocco
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
Definition Field Listing refugees (country of origin): 90,000 (Western Saharan Sahrawi, mostly living in Algerian-sponsored camps in the southwestern Algerian town of Tindouf)
IDPs: undetermined (civil war during 1990s) (2007)
Trafficking in persons:
Definition Field Listing current situation: Algeria is a transit country for men and women trafficked from sub-Saharan Africa to Europe for the purposes of commercial sexual exploitation and involuntary servitude; Algerian children are trafficked internally for the purpose of domestic servitude or street vending
tier rating: Tier 3 - Algeria did not report any serious law enforcement actions to punish traffickers who force women into commercial sexual exploitation or men into involuntary servitude in 2007; the government again reported no investigations of trafficking of children for domestic servitude or improvements in protection services available to victims of trafficking; Algeria still lacks victim protection services, and its failure to distinguish between trafficking and illegal migration may result in the punishment of victims of trafficking (2008)

Students of the World => Countries of the World => Algeria
Home About us Penpals for students Countries of the World Schools of the World Games Blogs Clubs Forums Links

Countries of the World - Detailed information about Algeria -
Source : CIA's World Fact Book 2008

Since 2003, January 19