Singapore

source : World Fact Book 2008 (October 2008)

SEE UPDATED INFORMATION HERE

   Introduction    Singapore
Background:
Definition Field Listing Singapore was founded as a British trading colony in 1819. It joined the Malaysian Federation in 1963 but separated two years later and became independent. Singapore subsequently became one of the world's most prosperous countries with strong international trading links (its port is one of the world's busiest in terms of tonnage handled) and with per capita GDP equal to that of the leading nations of Western Europe.
   Geography    Singapore
Location:
Definition Field Listing Southeastern Asia, islands between Malaysia and Indonesia
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing 1 22 N, 103 48 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing Southeast Asia
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 692.7 sq km
land: 682.7 sq km
water: 10 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing slightly more than 3.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing 0 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing 193 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing territorial sea: 3 nm
exclusive fishing zone: within and beyond territorial sea, as defined in treaties and practice
Climate:
Definition Field Listing tropical; hot, humid, rainy; two distinct monsoon seasons - Northeastern monsoon (December to March) and Southwestern monsoon (June to September); inter-monsoon - frequent afternoon and early evening thunderstorms
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing lowland; gently undulating central plateau contains water catchment area and nature preserve
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing lowest point: Singapore Strait 0 m
highest point: Bukit Timah 166 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing fish, deepwater ports
Land use:
Definition Field Listing arable land: 1.47%
permanent crops: 1.47%
other: 97.06% (2005)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing NA
Total renewable water resources:
Definition Field Listing 0.6 cu km (1975)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
Definition Field Listing total: 0.19 cu km/yr (45%/51%/4%)
per capita: 44 cu m/yr (1975)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing NA
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing industrial pollution; limited natural fresh water resources; limited land availability presents waste disposal problems; seasonal smoke/haze resulting from forest fires in Indonesia
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing focal point for Southeast Asian sea routes
   People    Singapore
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 4,608,167 (July 2008 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing 0-14 years: 14.8% (male 353,333/female 329,005)
15-64 years: 76.5% (male 1,717,357/female 1,809,462)
65 years and over: 8.7% (male 177,378/female 221,632) (2008 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing total: 38.4 years
male: 38 years
female: 38.8 years (2008 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing 1.135% (2008 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 8.99 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 4.53 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 6.88 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2008 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 2.3 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 2.51 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 2.08 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total population: 81.89 years
male: 79.29 years
female: 84.68 years (2008 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 1.08 children born/woman (2008 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0.2% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 4,100 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order fewer than 200 (2003 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing noun: Singaporean(s)
adjective: Singapore
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing Chinese 76.8%, Malay 13.9%, Indian 7.9%, other 1.4% (2000 census)
Religions:
Definition Field Listing Buddhist 42.5%, Muslim 14.9%, Taoist 8.5%, Hindu 4%, Catholic 4.8%, other Christian 9.8%, other 0.7%, none 14.8% (2000 census)
Languages:
Definition Field Listing Mandarin 35%, English 23%, Malay 14.1%, Hokkien 11.4%, Cantonese 5.7%, Teochew 4.9%, Tamil 3.2%, other Chinese dialects 1.8%, other 0.9% (2000 census)
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 92.5%
male: 96.6%
female: 88.6% (2000 census)
Education expenditures:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 3.7% of GDP (2001)
   Government    Singapore
Country name:
Definition Field Listing conventional long form: Republic of Singapore
conventional short form: Singapore
local long form: Republic of Singapore
local short form: Singapore
Government type:
Definition Field Listing parliamentary republic
Capital:
Definition Field Listing name: Singapore
geographic coordinates: 1 17 N, 103 51 E
time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing none
Independence:
Definition Field Listing 9 August 1965 (from Malaysian Federation)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing National Day, 9 August (1965)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing 3 June 1959; amended 1965 (based on preindependence State of Singapore Constitution)
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing based on English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing 21 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing chief of state: President S R NATHAN (since 1 September 1999)
note: uses S R NATHAN but his full name and the one used in formal communications is Sellapan RAMANATHAN
head of government: Prime Minister LEE Hsien Loong (since 12 August 2004); Senior Minister GOH Chok Tong (since 12 August 2004); Minister Mentor LEE Kuan Yew (since 12 August 2004); Deputy Prime Ministers Shunmugam JAYAKUMAR (since 12 August 2004) and WONG Kan Seng (since 1 September 2005)
cabinet: appointed by president, responsible to parliament
elections: president elected by popular vote for six-year term; appointed on 17 August 2005 (next election to be held by August 2011); following legislative elections, leader of majority party or leader of majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by president; deputy prime ministers appointed by president
election results: Sellapan Rama (S R) NATHAN appointed president in August 2005 after Presidential Elections Committee disqualified three other would-be candidates; scheduled election not held
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing unicameral Parliament (84 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms); note - in addition, there are up to nine nominated members; up to three losing opposition candidates who came closest to winning seats may be appointed as "nonconstituency" members
elections: last held on 6 May 2006 (next to be held by 2011)
election results: percent of vote by party - PAP 66.6%, WP 16.3%, SDA 13%, SDP 4.1%; seats by party - PAP 82, WP 1, SDA 1
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing Supreme Court (chief justice is appointed by the president with the advice of the prime minister, other judges are appointed by the president with the advice of the chief justice); Court of Appeals
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing People's Action Party or PAP [LEE Hsien Loong]; Singapore Democratic Alliance or SDA [CHIAM See Tong]; Singapore Democratic Party or SDP [CHEE Soon Juan]; Workers' Party or WP [Sylvia LIM Swee Lian]
note: SDA includes Singapore Justice Party or SJP, Singapore National Malay Organization or PKMS, Singapore People's Party or SPP
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing UNFEM [Saleeman ISMAIL]
other: investment companies; news organizations
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing ADB, APEC, APT, ARF, ASEAN, BIS, C, CP, EAS, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNMIT, UPU, WCL, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing chief of mission: Ambassador CHAN Heng Chee
chancery: 3501 International Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 537-3100
FAX: [1] (202) 537-0876
consulate(s) general: San Francisco
consulate(s): New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing chief of mission: Ambassador Patricia L. HERBOLD
embassy: 27 Napier Road, Singapore 258508
mailing address: FPO AP 96507-0001
telephone: [65] 6476-9100
FAX: [65] 6476-9340
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; near the hoist side of the red band, there is a vertical, white crescent (closed portion is toward the hoist side) partially enclosing five white five-pointed stars arranged in a circle
   Economy    Singapore
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing Singapore has a highly developed and successful free-market economy. It enjoys a remarkably open and corruption-free environment, stable prices, and a per capita GDP equal to that of the four largest West European countries. The economy depends heavily on exports, particularly in consumer electronics and information technology products. It was hard hit from 2001-03 by the global recession, by the slump in the technology sector, and by an outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in 2003, which curbed tourism and consumer spending. Fiscal stimulus, low interest rates, a surge in exports, and internal flexibility led to vigorous growth in 2004-07 with real GDP growth averaging 7% annually. The government hopes to establish a new growth path that will be less vulnerable to the global demand cycle for information technology products - it has attracted major investments in pharmaceuticals and medical technology production - and will continue efforts to establish Singapore as Southeast Asia's financial and high-tech hub.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $227.1 billion (2007 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
Definition Field Listing $161.3 billion (2007 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 7.7% (2007 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $49,900 (2007 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing agriculture: 0%
industry: 31.2%
services: 68.8% (2007 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 2.751 million (2007 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing manufacturing 21%, construction 5%, transportation and communication 7%, financial, business, and other services 42%, other 25% (2006)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 2.1% (2007 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing lowest 10%: 1.9%
highest 10%: 32.8% (1998)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing 52.2 (2005)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 2.1% (2007 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 24.9% of GDP (2007 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing revenues: $27 billion
expenditures: $21.5 billion (2007 est.)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 96.3% of GDP (2007 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing rubber, copra, fruit, orchids, vegetables; poultry, eggs; fish, ornamental fish
Industries:
Definition Field Listing electronics, chemicals, financial services, oil drilling equipment, petroleum refining, rubber processing and rubber products, processed food and beverages, ship repair, offshore platform construction, life sciences, entrepot trade
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 7.4% (2007 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 39.44 billion kWh (2006)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 35.92 billion kWh (2006)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing 0 kWh (2006)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing 0 kWh (2006)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 9,836 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 802,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 1.073 million bbl/day (2004)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 1.83 million bbl/day (2004)
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0 bbl (1 January 2006 est.)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0 cu m (2006 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 6.8 billion cu m (2006 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0 cu m (2006 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 6.339 billion cu m
note: from Indonesia and Malaysia (2005)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0 cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $46.39 billion (2007 est.)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $302.7 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing machinery and equipment (including electronics), consumer goods, chemicals, mineral fuels
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing Malaysia 12.9%, Hong Kong 10.5%, Indonesia 9.8%, China 9.7%, US 8.9%, Japan 4.8%, Thailand 4.1% (2007)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $252 billion (2007 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing machinery and equipment, mineral fuels, chemicals, foodstuffs
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing Malaysia 13.1%, US 12.5%, China 12.1%, Japan 8.2%, Taiwan 5.9%, Indonesia 5.6%, South Korea 4.9% (2007)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing $0 (2007)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $163 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $25.59 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $214.5 billion (2007 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $111.2 billion (2005)
Market value of publicly traded shares:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $382.4 billion (2007)
Currency (code):
Definition Field Listing Singapore dollar (SGD)
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing Singapore dollars per US dollar - 1.507 (2007), 1.5889 (2006), 1.6644 (2005), 1.6902 (2004), 1.7422 (2003)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing 1 April - 31 March
   Communications    Singapore
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 1.859 million (2007)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 5.619 million (2007)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing general assessment: excellent service
domestic: excellent domestic facilities; launched 3G wireless service in February 2005; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity is about 150 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 65; numerous submarine cables provide links throughout Asia, Australia, the Middle East, Europe, and US; satellite earth stations -4; supplemented by VSAT coverage (2003)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing AM 0, FM 17, shortwave 2 (2003)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing 1 (broadcasting on six channels); additional reception of numerous UHF and VHF signals originating in Malaysia and Indonesia (2006)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing .sg
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 954,475 (2007)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 3.105 million (2007)
   Transportation    Singapore
Airports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 8 (2007)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing total: 8
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2007)
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing gas 139 km; refined products 8 km (2007)
Roadways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 3,262 km
paved: 3,262 km (includes 150 km of expressways) (2006)
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 1,254 ships (1000 GRT or over) 36,840,708 GRT/57,100,327 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 171, cargo 80, carrier 5, chemical tanker 207, container 257, liquefied gas 89, petroleum tanker 380, refrigerated cargo 5, roll on/roll off 4, specialized tanker 6, vehicle carrier 50
foreign-owned: 758 (Australia 11, Bangladesh 2, Belgium 8, Chile 6, China 14, Denmark 82, France 1, Germany 24, Greece 14, Hong Kong 44, India 10, Indonesia 66, Italy 5, Japan 109, Malaysia 26, Norway 164, Philippines 4, Slovenia 1, South Korea 8, Sweden 19, Switzerland 2, Taiwan 71, Thailand 22, UAE 14, UK 13, US 18)
registered in other countries: 320 (Australia 1, Bahamas 17, Belize 2, Bolivia 1, Cambodia 3, Cayman Islands 10, Comoros 1, Cyprus 4, Dominica 7, France 2, Honduras 11, Hong Kong 11, Indonesia 27, Kiribati 3, Liberia 35, Malaysia 17, Malta 2, Marshall Islands 18, Mongolia 9, Norway 1, Panama 98, Philippines 1, St Kitts and Nevis 1, St Vincent and the Grenadines 5, Thailand 1, Tuvalu 15, UK 2, US 12, unknown 3) (2008)
Ports and terminals:
Definition Field Listing Singapore
Transportation - note:
Definition Field Listing the International Maritime Bureau reports the territorial and offshore waters in the South China Sea as high risk for piracy and armed robbery against ships; numerous commercial vessels have been attacked and hijacked both at anchor and while underway; hijacked vessels are often disguised and cargo diverted to ports in East Asia; crews have been murdered or cast adrift
   Military    Singapore
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing Singapore Armed Forces: Army, Navy, Air Force (includes Air Defense) (2008)
Military service age and obligation:
Definition Field Listing 18-21 years of age for male compulsory military service; 16 years of age for volunteers; 2-year conscript service obligation, with a reserve obligation to age 40 (enlisted) or age 50 (officers) (2008)
Manpower available for military service:
Definition Field Listing males age 16-49: 1,277,862 (2008 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing males age 16-49: 1,038,603 (2008 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
Definition Field Listing male: 27,742
female: 26,325 (2008 est.)
Military expenditures:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 4.9% of GDP (2005 est.)
   Transnational Issues    Singapore
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing disputes persist with Malaysia over deliveries of fresh water to Singapore, Singapore's extensive land reclamation works, bridge construction, and maritime boundaries in the Johor and Singapore Straits; in November 2007, the ICJ will hold public hearings as a consequence of the Memorials and Countermemorials filed by the parties in 2003 and 2005 over sovereignty of Pedra Branca Island/Pulau Batu Puteh, Middle Rocks and South Ledge; Indonesia and Singapore continue to work on finalization of their 1973 maritime boundary agreement by defining unresolved areas north of Indonesia's Batam Island; piracy remains a problem in the Malacca Strait
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing drug abuse limited because of aggressive law enforcement efforts; as a transportation and financial services hub, Singapore is vulnerable, despite strict laws and enforcement, as a venue for money laundering


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Source : CIA's World Fact Book 2008

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