source : World Fact Book 2008 (October 2008)


   Introduction    Mozambique
Definition Field Listing Almost five centuries as a Portuguese colony came to a close with independence in 1975. Large-scale emigration by whites, economic dependence on South Africa, a severe drought, and a prolonged civil war hindered the country's development until the mid 1990's. The ruling Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (FRELIMO) party formally abandoned Marxism in 1989, and a new constitution the following year provided for multiparty elections and a free market economy. A UN-negotiated peace agreement between FRELIMO and rebel Mozambique National Resistance (RENAMO) forces ended the fighting in 1992. In December 2004, Mozambique underwent a delicate transition as Joaquim CHISSANO stepped down after 18 years in office. His elected successor, Armando Emilio GUEBUZA, promised to continue the sound economic policies that have encouraged foreign investment. Mozambique has seen very strong economic growth since the end of the civil war largely due to post-conflict reconstruction.
   Geography    Mozambique
Definition Field Listing Southeastern Africa, bordering the Mozambique Channel, between South Africa and Tanzania
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing 18 15 S, 35 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing Africa
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 801,590 sq km
land: 784,090 sq km
water: 17,500 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing slightly less than twice the size of California
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing total: 4,571 km
border countries: Malawi 1,569 km, South Africa 491 km, Swaziland 105 km, Tanzania 756 km, Zambia 419 km, Zimbabwe 1,231 km
Definition Field Listing 2,470 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Definition Field Listing tropical to subtropical
Definition Field Listing mostly coastal lowlands, uplands in center, high plateaus in northwest, mountains in west
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Monte Binga 2,436 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing coal, titanium, natural gas, hydropower, tantalum, graphite
Land use:
Definition Field Listing arable land: 5.43%
permanent crops: 0.29%
other: 94.28% (2005)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing 1,180 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources:
Definition Field Listing 216 cu km (1992)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
Definition Field Listing total: 0.63 cu km/yr (11%/2%/87%)
per capita: 32 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing severe droughts; devastating cyclones and floods in central and southern provinces
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing a long civil war and recurrent drought in the hinterlands have resulted in increased migration of the population to urban and coastal areas with adverse environmental consequences; desertification; pollution of surface and coastal waters; elephant poaching for ivory is a problem
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing the Zambezi flows through the north-central and most fertile part of the country
   People    Mozambique
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 21,284,700
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected; the 1997 Mozambican census reported a population of 16,099,246 (July 2008 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing 0-14 years: 44.5% (male 4,762,335/female 4,711,422)
15-64 years: 52.7% (male 5,472,184/female 5,736,154)
65 years and over: 2.8% (male 251,026/female 351,580) (2008 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing total: 17.4 years
male: 17 years
female: 17.8 years (2008 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing 1.792% (2008 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 38.21 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 20.29 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order NA (2008 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2008 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 107.84 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 110.67 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 104.97 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total population: 41.04 years
male: 41.62 years
female: 40.44 years (2008 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 5.24 children born/woman (2008 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 12.2% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 1.3 million (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 110,000 (2003 est.)
Major infectious diseases:
Definition Field Listing degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and plague
water contact disease: schistosomiasis (2008)
Definition Field Listing noun: Mozambican(s)
adjective: Mozambican
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing African 99.66% (Makhuwa, Tsonga, Lomwe, Sena, and others), Europeans 0.06%, Euro-Africans 0.2%, Indians 0.08%
Definition Field Listing Catholic 23.8%, Muslim 17.8%, Zionist Christian 17.5%, other 17.8%, none 23.1% (1997 census)
Definition Field Listing Emakhuwa 26.1%, Xichangana 11.3%, Portuguese 8.8% (official; spoken by 27% of population as a second language), Elomwe 7.6%, Cisena 6.8%, Echuwabo 5.8%, other Mozambican languages 32%, other foreign languages 0.3%, unspecified 1.3% (1997 census)
Definition Field Listing definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 47.8%
male: 63.5%
female: 32.7% (2003 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
Definition Field Listing total: 8 years
male: 9 years
female: 7 years (2005)
Education expenditures:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 5% of GDP (2005)
   Government    Mozambique
Country name:
Definition Field Listing conventional long form: Republic of Mozambique
conventional short form: Mozambique
local long form: Republica de Mocambique
local short form: Mocambique
former: Portuguese East Africa
Government type:
Definition Field Listing republic
Definition Field Listing name: Maputo
geographic coordinates: 25 57 S, 32 35 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing 10 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia), 1 city (cidade)*; Cabo Delgado, Gaza, Inhambane, Manica, Maputo, Cidade de Maputo*, Nampula, Niassa, Sofala, Tete, Zambezia
Definition Field Listing 25 June 1975 (from Portugal)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing Independence Day, 25 June (1975)
Definition Field Listing 30 November 1990
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing based on Portuguese civil law system and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Definition Field Listing 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing chief of state: President Armando GUEBUZA (since 2 February 2005)
head of government: Prime Minister Luisa DIOGO (since 17 February 2004)
cabinet: Cabinet
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 1-2 December 2004 (next to be held in December 2009); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Armando GUEBUZA elected president; percent of vote - Armando GUEBUZA 63.7%, Afonso DHLAKAMA 31.7%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing unicameral Assembly of the Republic or Assembleia da Republica (250 seats; members are directly elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 1-2 December 2004 (next to be held in December 2009)
election results: percent of vote by party - FRELIMO 62%, RENAMO 29.7%, other 8.3%; seats by party - FRELIMO 160, RENAMO 90
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing Supreme Court (the court of final appeal; some of its professional judges are appointed by the president and some are elected by the Assembly); other courts include an Administrative Court, customs courts, maritime courts, courts marshal, labor courts
note: although the constitution provides for a separate Constitutional Court, one has never been established; in its absence the Supreme Court reviews constitutional cases
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (Frente de Liberatacao de Mocambique) or FRELIMO [Armando Emilio GUEBUZA]; Mozambique National Resistance-Electoral Union (Resistencia Nacional Mocambicana-Uniao Eleitoral) or RENAMO-UE [Afonso DHLAKAMA]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing Etica [Abdul CARIMO Issa, chairman]; Human Rights and Development (Direitos Humanos e Desenvolvimento) or DHD [Artemisia FRANCO, secretary general]; Institute for Peace and Democracy (Instituto para Paz e Democracia) or IPADE [Raul DOMINGOS, president]; Movement for Peace and Citizenship (Movimento para Paz e Cidadania); Mozambican League of Human Rights (Liga Mocambicana dos Direitos Humanos) or LDH [Alice MABOTE, president]
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing ACP, AfDB, AU, C, CPLP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OIF (observer), OPCW, SADC, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMIS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing chief of mission: Ambassador Marcos Geraldo NAMASHULUA
chancery: 1525 New Hampshire Avenue, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 293-7146
FAX: [1] (202) 835-0245
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Todd C. CHAPMAN
embassy: Avenida Kenneth Kuanda 193, Maputo
mailing address: P. O. Box 783, Maputo
telephone: [258] (21) 492797
FAX: [258] (21) 490448
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing three equal horizontal bands of green (top), black, and yellow with a red isosceles triangle based on the hoist side; the black band is edged in white; centered in the triangle is a yellow five-pointed star bearing a crossed rifle and hoe in black superimposed on an open white book
   Economy    Mozambique
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing At independence in 1975, Mozambique was one of the world's poorest countries. Socialist mismanagement and a brutal civil war from 1977-92 exacerbated the situation. In 1987, the government embarked on a series of macroeconomic reforms designed to stabilize the economy. These steps, combined with donor assistance and with political stability since the multi-party elections in 1994, have led to dramatic improvements in the country's growth rate. Inflation was reduced to single digits during the late 1990s, and although it returned to double digits in 2000-06, in 2007 inflation had slowed to 8%, while GDP growth reached 7.5%. Fiscal reforms, including the introduction of a value-added tax and reform of the customs service, have improved the government's revenue collection abilities. In spite of these gains, Mozambique remains dependent upon foreign assistance for much of its annual budget, and the majority of the population remains below the poverty line. Subsistence agriculture continues to employ the vast majority of the country's work force. A substantial trade imbalance persists although the opening of the Mozal aluminum smelter, the country's largest foreign investment project to date, has increased export earnings. At the end of 2007, and after years of negotiations, the government took over Portugal's majority share of the Cahora Bassa Hydroelectricity (HCB) company, a dam that was not transferred to Mozambique at independence because of the ensuing civil war and unpaid debts. More power is needed for additional investment projects in titanium extraction and processing and garment manufacturing that could further close the import/export gap. Mozambique's once substantial foreign debt has been reduced through forgiveness and rescheduling under the IMF's Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) and Enhanced HIPC initiatives, and is now at a manageable level. In July 2007 the Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) signed a Compact with Mozambique; the Mozambican government moved rapidly to ratify the Compact and propose a plan for funding.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $17.64 billion (2007 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
Definition Field Listing $7.559 billion (2007 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 7.3% (2007 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $800 (2007 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing agriculture: 23%
industry: 30.1%
services: 46.9% (2007 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 9.6 million (2007 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing agriculture: 81%
industry: 6%
services: 13% (1997 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 21% (1997 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing 70% (2001 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing lowest 10%: 2.1%
highest 10%: 39.4% (2002)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing 47.3 (2002)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 8.2% (2007 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 21.3% of GDP (2007 est.)
Definition Field Listing revenues: $2.302 billion
expenditures: $2.63 billion (2007 est.)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 22.2% of GDP (2007 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing cotton, cashew nuts, sugarcane, tea, cassava (tapioca), corn, coconuts, sisal, citrus and tropical fruits, potatoes, sunflowers; beef, poultry
Definition Field Listing food, beverages, chemicals (fertilizer, soap, paints), aluminum, petroleum products, textiles, cement, glass, asbestos, tobacco
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 10% (2007 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 13.17 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 9.127 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing 12 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing 9.588 billion kWh (2005)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 13,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0 bbl/day (2004)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 13,320 bbl/day (2004)
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0 bbl (1 January 2006 est.)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 191.8 million cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 191.8 million cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0 cu m (2005)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 122.2 billion cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order -$795.1 million (2007 est.)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $2.412 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing aluminum, prawns, cashews, cotton, sugar, citrus, timber; bulk electricity
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing Italy 19.2%, Belgium 18.3%, Spain 12.3%, South Africa 12.2%, UK 7.2%, China 4.1% (2007)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $2.811 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing machinery and equipment, vehicles, fuel, chemicals, metal products, foodstuffs, textiles
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing South Africa 38.1%, Australia 5.9%, China 4.8% (2007)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing $1.286 billion (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $1.445 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $4.189 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $NA
Currency (code):
Definition Field Listing metical (MZM)
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing meticais per US dollar - 26.264 (2007), 25.4 (2006), 23,061 (2005), 22,581 (2004), 23,782 (2003)
note: in 2006 Mozambique revalued its currency, with 1000 old meticais equal to 1 new meticais
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing calendar year
   Communications    Mozambique
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 67,000 (2006)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 3.3 million (2007)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing general assessment: fair system with an extremely low density of less than 1 fixed line per 100 persons
domestic: the telecommunications sector is shackled with a heavy state presence, lack of competition, and high operating costs and charges; stagnation in the fixed-line network contrasts with rapid growth in the mobile-cellular network; mobile-cellular coverage now includes all the main cities and key roads, including those from Maputo to the South African and Swaziland borders, the national highway through Gaza and Inhambane provinces, the Beira corridor, and from Nampula to Nacala
international: country code - 258; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 3 Indian Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing AM 13, FM 17, shortwave 11 (2001)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing 1 (2000)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing .mz
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 15,231 (2007)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 200,000 (2007)
   Transportation    Mozambique
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 147 (2007)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing total: 22
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 5 (2007)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing total: 125
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 9
914 to 1,523 m: 36
under 914 m: 79 (2007)
Definition Field Listing gas 964 km; refined products 278 km (2007)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 3,123 km
narrow gauge: 2,983 km 1.067-m gauge; 140 km 0.762-m gauge (2006)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 30,400 km
paved: 5,685 km
unpaved: 24,715 km (2000)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 460 km (Zambezi River navigable to Tete and along Cahora Bassa Lake) (2007)
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 2 ships (1000 GRT or over) 2,964 GRT/5,324 DWT
by type: cargo 2
foreign-owned: 2 (Belgium 2) (2008)
Ports and terminals:
Definition Field Listing Beira, Maputo, Nacala
   Military    Mozambique
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing Mozambique Armed Defense Forces (FADM): Mozambique Army, Mozambique Navy (Marinha Mocambique, MM), Mozambique Air Force (Forca Aerea de Mocambique, FAM) (2006)
Military service age and obligation:
Definition Field Listing 18-30 years of age for compulsory military service; 2-year service obligation (2006)
Manpower available for military service:
Definition Field Listing males age 16-49: 4,545,975 (2008 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing males age 16-49: 2,287,526 (2008 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
Definition Field Listing male: 257,261
female: 259,114 (2008 est.)
Military expenditures:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0.8% of GDP (2006)
   Transnational Issues    Mozambique
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing none
Trafficking in persons:
Definition Field Listing current situation: Mozambique is a source and, to a much lesser extent, a destination country for men, women, and children trafficked for the purposes of forced labor and sexual exploitation; the use of forced and bonded child laborers is a common practice in Mozambique's rural areas; women and girls are trafficked from rural to urban areas of Mozambique, as well as to South Africa, for domestic servitude and commercial sexual exploitation; young men and boys are trafficked to South Africa for farm work and mining
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - for the second consecutive year, Mozambique is on the Tier 2 Watch List for its failure to provide evidence of increasing efforts to combat human trafficking in 2007; while the government conducted investigations into cases of human trafficking, there were no prosecutions or convictions of traffickers; government efforts to protect victims of trafficking continued to suffer from limited resources and a lack of political commitment (2008)
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing southern African transit point for South Asian hashish and heroin, and South American cocaine probably destined for the European and South African markets; producer of cannabis (for local consumption) and methaqualone (for export to South Africa); corruption and poor regulatory capability makes the banking system vulnerable to money laundering, but the lack of a well-developed financial infrastructure limits the country's utility as a money-laundering center

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Countries of the World - Detailed information about Mozambique -
Source : CIA's World Fact Book 2008

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