Croatia

source : World Fact Book 2008 (October 2008)

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   Introduction    Croatia
Background:
Definition Field Listing The lands that today comprise Croatia were part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until the close of World War I. In 1918, the Croats, Serbs, and Slovenes formed a kingdom known after 1929 as Yugoslavia. Following World War II, Yugoslavia became a federal independent Communist state under the strong hand of Marshal TITO. Although Croatia declared its independence from Yugoslavia in 1991, it took four years of sporadic, but often bitter, fighting before occupying Serb armies were mostly cleared from Croatian lands. Under UN supervision, the last Serb-held enclave in eastern Slavonia was returned to Croatia in 1998.
   Geography    Croatia
Location:
Definition Field Listing Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea, between Bosnia and Herzegovina and Slovenia
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing 45 10 N, 15 30 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing Europe
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 56,542 sq km
land: 56,414 sq km
water: 128 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing slightly smaller than West Virginia
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing total: 1,982 km
border countries: Bosnia and Herzegovina 932 km, Hungary 329 km, Serbia 241 km, Montenegro 25 km, Slovenia 455 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing 5,835 km (mainland 1,777 km, islands 4,058 km)
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing territorial sea: 12 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate:
Definition Field Listing Mediterranean and continental; continental climate predominant with hot summers and cold winters; mild winters, dry summers along coast
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing geographically diverse; flat plains along Hungarian border, low mountains and highlands near Adriatic coastline and islands
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point: Dinara 1,830 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing oil, some coal, bauxite, low-grade iron ore, calcium, gypsum, natural asphalt, silica, mica, clays, salt, hydropower
Land use:
Definition Field Listing arable land: 25.82%
permanent crops: 2.19%
other: 71.99% (2005)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing 110 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources:
Definition Field Listing 105.5 cu km (1998)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing destructive earthquakes
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing air pollution (from metallurgical plants) and resulting acid rain is damaging the forests; coastal pollution from industrial and domestic waste; landmine removal and reconstruction of infrastructure consequent to 1992-95 civil strife
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing controls most land routes from Western Europe to Aegean Sea and Turkish Straits; most Adriatic Sea islands lie off the coast of Croatia - some 1,200 islands, islets, ridges, and rocks
   People    Croatia
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 4,491,543 (July 2008 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing 0-14 years: 15.8% (male 363,551/female 345,132)
15-64 years: 67.2% (male 1,501,949/female 1,517,962)
65 years and over: 17% (male 295,229/female 467,720) (2008 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing total: 40.8 years
male: 38.9 years
female: 42.6 years (2008 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing -0.043% (2008 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 9.64 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 11.66 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 1.58 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.63 male(s)/female
total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2008 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 6.49 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 6.51 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 6.46 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total population: 75.13 years
male: 71.49 years
female: 78.97 years (2008 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 1.41 children born/woman (2008 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order less than 0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 200 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order fewer than 10 (2001 est.)
Major infectious diseases:
Definition Field Listing degree of risk: intermediate
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea and hepatitis A
vectorborne diseases: tickborne encephalitis
note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2008)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing noun: Croat(s), Croatian(s)
adjective: Croatian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing Croat 89.6%, Serb 4.5%, other 5.9% (including Bosniak, Hungarian, Slovene, Czech, and Roma) (2001 census)
Religions:
Definition Field Listing Roman Catholic 87.8%, Orthodox 4.4%, other Christian 0.4%, Muslim 1.3%, other and unspecified 0.9%, none 5.2% (2001 census)
Languages:
Definition Field Listing Croatian 96.1%, Serbian 1%, other and undesignated 2.9% (including Italian, Hungarian, Czech, Slovak, and German) (2001 census)
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98.1%
male: 99.3%
female: 97.1% (2001 census)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
Definition Field Listing total: 14 years
male: 13 years
female: 14 years (2006)
Education expenditures:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 4.5% of GDP (2004)
   Government    Croatia
Country name:
Definition Field Listing conventional long form: Republic of Croatia
conventional short form: Croatia
local long form: Republika Hrvatska
local short form: Hrvatska
former: People's Republic of Croatia, Socialist Republic of Croatia
Government type:
Definition Field Listing presidential/parliamentary democracy
Capital:
Definition Field Listing name: Zagreb
geographic coordinates: 45 48 N, 16 00 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing 20 counties (zupanije, zupanija - singular) and 1 city* (grad - singular); Bjelovarsko-Bilogorska, Brodsko-Posavska, Dubrovacko-Neretvanska (Dubrovnik-Neretva), Istarska (Istria), Karlovacka, Koprivnicko-Krizevacka, Krapinsko-Zagorska, Licko-Senjska (Lika-Senj), Medimurska, Osjecko-Baranjska, Pozesko-Slavonska (Pozega-Slavonia), Primorsko-Goranska, Sibensko-Kninska, Sisacko-Moslavacka, Splitsko-Dalmatinska (Split-Dalmatia), Varazdinska, Viroviticko-Podravska, Vukovarsko-Srijemska, Zadarska, Zagreb*, Zagrebacka
Independence:
Definition Field Listing 25 June 1991 (from Yugoslavia)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing Independence Day, 8 October (1991); note - 25 June 1991 was the day the Croatian Parliament voted for independence; following a three-month moratorium to allow the European Community to solve the Yugoslav crisis peacefully, Parliament adopted a decision on 8 October 1991 to sever constitutional relations with Yugoslavia
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing adopted on 22 December 1990; revised 2000, 2001
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing based on Austro-Hungarian law system with Communist law influences; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing 18 years of age; universal (16 years of age, if employed)
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing chief of state: President Stjepan (Stipe) MESIC (since 18 February 2000)
head of government: Prime Minister Ivo SANADER (since 9 December 2003); Deputy Prime Ministers Jadranka KOSOR (since 23 December 2003) and Damir POLANCEC (since 15 February 2005), Djurdja ADLESIC (since 12 January 2008), Slobodan UZELAC (since 12 January 2008)
cabinet: Council of Ministers named by the prime minister and approved by the parliamentary Assembly
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 16 January 2005 (next to be held in January 2010); the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the president and then approved by the Assembly
election results: Stjepan MESIC reelected president; percent of vote - Stjepan MESIC 66%, Jadranka KOSOR 34% in the second round
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing unicameral Assembly or Sabor (153 seats; members elected from party lists by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 25 November 2007 (next to be held in November 2011)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; number of seats by party - HDZ 66, SDP 56, HNS 7, HSS 6, HDSSB 3, IDS 3, SDSS 3, other 9
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing Supreme Court; Constitutional Court; judges for both courts appointed for eight-year terms by the Judicial Council of the Republic, which is elected by the Assembly
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing Croatian Democratic Congress of Slavonia and Baranja or HDSSB [Vladimir SISLJAGIC]; Croatian Democratic Union or HDZ [Ivo SANADER]; Croatian Party of the Right or HSP [Anto DJAPIC]; Croatian Peasant Party or HSS [Josip FRISCIC]; Croatian Pensioner Party or HSU [Vladimir JORDAN]; Croatian People's Party or HNS [Vesna PUSIC]; Croatian Social Liberal Party or HSLS [Djurdja ADLESIC]; Independent Democratic Serb Party or SDSS [Vojislav STANIMIROVIC]; Istrian Democratic Assembly or IDS [Ivan JAKOVCIC]; Social Democratic Party of Croatia or SDP [Zoran MILANOVIC]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing other: human rights groups
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing ACCT (observer), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, SECI, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMEE, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNMOGIP, UNOCI, UNOMIG, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing chief of mission: Ambassador Kolinda GRABAR-KITAROVIC
chancery: 2343 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 588-5899
FAX: [1] (202) 588-8936
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing chief of mission: Ambassador Robert A. BRADTKE
embassy: 2 Thomas Jefferson Street, 10010 Zagreb
mailing address: use street address
telephone: [385] (1) 661-2200
FAX: [385] (1) 661-2373
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and blue superimposed by the Croatian coat of arms (red and white checkered)
   Economy    Croatia
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing Once one of the wealthiest of the Yugoslav republics, Croatia's economy suffered badly during the 1991-95 war as output collapsed and the country missed the early waves of investment in Central and Eastern Europe that followed the fall of the Berlin Wall. Since 2000, however, Croatia's economic fortunes have begun to improve slowly, with moderate but steady GDP growth between 4% and 6% led by a rebound in tourism and credit-driven consumer spending. Inflation over the same period has remained tame and the currency, the kuna, stable. Nevertheless, difficult problems still remain, including a stubbornly high unemployment rate, a growing trade deficit and uneven regional development. The state retains a large role in the economy, as privatization efforts often meet stiff public and political resistance. While macroeconomic stabilization has largely been achieved, structural reforms lag because of deep resistance on the part of the public and lack of strong support from politicians. The EU accession process should accelerate fiscal and structural reform.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $69.59 billion (2007 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
Definition Field Listing $51.36 billion (2007 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 5.7% (2007 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $15,500 (2007 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing agriculture: 7.2%
industry: 31.7%
services: 61.2% (2007 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 1.749 million (2007 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing agriculture: 2.7%
industry: 32.8%
services: 64.5% (2004)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 11.8% (2007 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing 11% (2003)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing lowest 10%: 3.4%
highest 10%: 24.5% (2003 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing 29 (2001)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 4.5% (2007 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 30.1% of GDP (2007 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing revenues: $22.56 billion
expenditures: $23.92 billion (2007 est.)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 47.8% of GDP (2007 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing wheat, corn, sugar beets, sunflower seed, barley, alfalfa, clover, olives, citrus, grapes, soybeans, potatoes; livestock, dairy products
Industries:
Definition Field Listing chemicals and plastics, machine tools, fabricated metal, electronics, pig iron and rolled steel products, aluminum, paper, wood products, construction materials, textiles, shipbuilding, petroleum and petroleum refining, food and beverages, tourism
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 5.3% (2007 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 11.99 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 14.97 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing 3.634 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing 8.746 billion kWh (2005)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 17,100 bbl/day (2007 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 99,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 40,930 bbl/day (2004)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 109,800 bbl/day (2004)
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 69.14 million bbl (1 January 2006 est.)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 1.477 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 2.58 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 1.103 billion cu m (2005)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 27.16 billion cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order -$4.85 billion (2007 est.)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $12.62 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing transport equipment, textiles, chemicals, foodstuffs, fuels
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing Italy 19.3%, Bosnia and Herzegovina 13.9%, Germany 10.2%, Slovenia 8.4%, Austria 6.2% (2007)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $25.99 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing machinery, transport and electrical equipment; chemicals, fuels and lubricants; foodstuffs
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing Italy 16.1%, Germany 14.4%, Russia 10.1%, China 6.2%, Slovenia 6%, Austria 5.3% (2007)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing ODA, $125.4 million (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $13.67 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $46.3 billion (30 June 2007)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $23.13 billion (2007 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $3.161 billion (2007 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $29.01 billion (2006)
Currency (code):
Definition Field Listing kuna (HRK)
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing kuna per US dollar - 5.3735 (2007), 5.8625 (2006), 5.9473 (2005), 6.0358 (2004), 6.7035 (2003)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing calendar year
   Communications    Croatia
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 1.825 million (2007)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 5.035 million (2007)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing general assessment: the telecommunications network has improved steadily since the mid-1990s; the number of fixed telephone lines holding steady at about 40 per 100 persons; the number of cellular telephone subscriptions exceeds the population
domestic: more than 90 percent of local lines are digital
international: country code - 385; digital international service is provided through the main switch in Zagreb; Croatia participates in the Trans-Asia-Europe (TEL) fiber-optic project, which consists of 2 fiber-optic trunk connections with Slovenia and a fiber-optic trunk line from Rijeka to Split and Dubrovnik; the ADRIA-1 submarine cable provides connectivity to Albania and Greece (2007)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing AM 16, FM 98, shortwave 5 (1999)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing 36 (plus 321 repeaters) (1995)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing .hr
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 261,954 (2007)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 1.995 million (2007)
   Transportation    Croatia
Airports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 68 (2007)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing total: 23
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 9 (2007)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing total: 45
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 7
under 914 m: 37 (2007)
Heliports:
Definition Field Listing 2 (2007)
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing gas 1,556 km; oil 583 km (2007)
Railways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 2,726 km
standard gauge: 2,726 km 1.435-m gauge (1,199 km electrified) (2006)
Roadways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 28,788 km (includes 877 km of expressways) (2006)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 785 km (2007)
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 80 ships (1000 GRT or over) 1,334,269 GRT/2,193,911 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 24, cargo 11, chemical tanker 3, passenger/cargo 30, petroleum tanker 8, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 3
foreign-owned: 1 (Bermuda 1)
registered in other countries: 33 (Bahamas 1, Belize 2, Liberia 2, Malta 11, Marshall Islands 6, Panama 3, St Vincent and the Grenadines 8) (2008)
Ports and terminals:
Definition Field Listing Omisalj, Ploce, Rijeka, Sibenik, Vukovar (on Danube)
   Military    Croatia
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing Armed Forces of the Republic of Croatia (Oruzane Snage Republike Hrvatske, OSRH), consists of five major commands directly subordinate to a General Staff: Ground Forces (Hrvatska Kopnena Vojska, HKoV), Naval Forces (Hrvatska Ratna Mornarica, HRM), Air Force (Hrvatsko Ratno Zrakoplovstvo, HRZ), Joint Education and Training Command, Logistics Command; Military Police Force supports each of the three Croatian military forces (2008)
Military service age and obligation:
Definition Field Listing 18-27 years of age for compulsory military service; 16 years of age with consent for voluntary service; 6-month conscript service obligation; full conversion to professional military service by 2010 (2006)
Manpower available for military service:
Definition Field Listing males age 16-49: 1,035,712
females age 16-49: 1,037,896 (2008 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing males age 16-49: 771,323
females age 16-49: 855,937 (2008 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
Definition Field Listing male: 27,500
female: 25,893 (2008 est.)
Military expenditures:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 2.39% of GDP (2005 est.)
   Transnational Issues    Croatia
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing dispute remains with Bosnia and Herzegovina over several small disputed sections of the boundary related to maritime access that hinders ratification of the 1999 border agreement; the Croatia-Slovenia land and maritime boundary agreement, which would have ceded most of Pirin Bay and maritime access to Slovenia and several villages to Croatia, remains un-ratified and in dispute; Slovenia also protests Croatia's 2003 claim to an exclusive economic zone in the Adriatic; as a European Union peripheral state, Slovenia imposed a hard border Schengen regime with non-member Croatia in December 2007
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
Definition Field Listing IDPs: 2,900-7,000 (Croats and Serbs displaced in 1992-95 war) (2007)
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing transit point along the Balkan route for Southwest Asian heroin to Western Europe; has been used as a transit point for maritime shipments of South American cocaine bound for Western Europe


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Source : CIA's World Fact Book 2008

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