The relief of Spain is characterized by being quite high, with an average altitude of 660 meters, quite mountainous if we compare it with the rest of European countries and only surpassed by Switzerland, and the microstates of Andorra and Liechtenstein.
In the peninsular Spain, the relief is articulated around a great Central Plateau that occupies most of the center of the Iberian Peninsula and that has an average altitude of 660 meters.
Outside the plateau, there is the depression of the Guadalquivir River, located in the southwest of the peninsula, and that of the Ebro River, in the northeast of it.
The mountainous systems of Spain are very numerous and occupy almost half of the national territory. The Pyrenees (in the northeast limit) and the Béticos Systems (in the southeast) are the highest mountain ranges and are located outside the Central Plateau.
Surrounding this one, is the Cantabrian mountain range in the north, the Iberian system in the east, and Sierra Morena in the south.
Within the Central Plateau is the Central system and the Montes de Toledo.
Two archipelagos of geographical interest belong to Spain: the Balearic Islands, located in the Mediterranean Sea, with a latitude similar to that of Castilla-La Mancha; and the Canary Islands, seven islands of volcanic origin located in the Atlantic Ocean, near the coast of Western Sahara; and with less importance: the Alborán Island between Spain and Morocco and the Columbretes Islands in Castellón.
From Spain are also some small coastal enclaves of North Africa: the cities of Ceuta and Melilla, the Chafarinas Islands, and the rocks of Alhucemas and Vélez de la Gomera.
The Spanish coast, bathed by the Atlantic Ocean, and the Cantabrian and Mediterranean seas, presents a great diversity of beaches, cliffs and estuaries.
The high coast (presence of cliffs and ridges) and articulated (presence of rias and capes) is the most predominant in the north and in the Canary Islands, while the low coast (presence of beaches and coves) is typical of the south, the Mediterranean and Balearic Islands.
The relief of Spain is characterized by being quite high, with an average altitude of 660 meters, and mountainous if we compare it with the rest of European countries, with the exception of Switzerland, Austria, whose average altitude is much higher.