Rwanda

source : World Fact Book 2008 (October 2008)

SEE UPDATED INFORMATION HERE

   Introduction    Rwanda
Background:
Definition Field Listing In 1959, three years before independence from Belgium, the majority ethnic group, the Hutus, overthrew the ruling Tutsi king. Over the next several years, thousands of Tutsis were killed, and some 150,000 driven into exile in neighboring countries. The children of these exiles later formed a rebel group, the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF), and began a civil war in 1990. The war, along with several political and economic upheavals, exacerbated ethnic tensions, culminating in April 1994 in the genocide of roughly 800,000 Tutsis and moderate Hutus. The Tutsi rebels defeated the Hutu regime and ended the killing in July 1994, but approximately 2 million Hutu refugees - many fearing Tutsi retribution - fled to neighboring Burundi, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zaire. Since then, most of the refugees have returned to Rwanda, but several thousand remained in the neighboring Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC; the former Zaire) and formed an extremist insurgency bent on retaking Rwanda, much as the RPF tried in 1990. Despite substantial international assistance and political reforms - including Rwanda's first local elections in March 1999 and its first post-genocide presidential and legislative elections in August and September 2003 - the country continues to struggle to boost investment and agricultural output, and ethnic reconciliation is complicated by the real and perceived Tutsi political dominance. Kigali's increasing centralization and intolerance of dissent, the nagging Hutu extremist insurgency across the border, and Rwandan involvement in two wars in recent years in the neighboring DRC continue to hinder Rwanda's efforts to escape its bloody legacy.
   Geography    Rwanda
Location:
Definition Field Listing Central Africa, east of Democratic Republic of the Congo
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing 2 00 S, 30 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing Africa
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 26,338 sq km
land: 24,948 sq km
water: 1,390 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing slightly smaller than Maryland
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing total: 893 km
border countries: Burundi 290 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 217 km, Tanzania 217 km, Uganda 169 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing none (landlocked)
Climate:
Definition Field Listing temperate; two rainy seasons (February to April, November to January); mild in mountains with frost and snow possible
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing mostly grassy uplands and hills; relief is mountainous with altitude declining from west to east
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing lowest point: Rusizi River 950 m
highest point: Volcan Karisimbi 4,519 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing gold, cassiterite (tin ore), wolframite (tungsten ore), methane, hydropower, arable land
Land use:
Definition Field Listing arable land: 45.56%
permanent crops: 10.25%
other: 44.19% (2005)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing 90 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources:
Definition Field Listing 5.2 cu km (2003)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
Definition Field Listing total: 0.15 cu km/yr (24%/8%/68%)
per capita: 17 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing periodic droughts; the volcanic Virunga mountains are in the northwest along the border with Democratic Republic of the Congo
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing deforestation results from uncontrolled cutting of trees for fuel; overgrazing; soil exhaustion; soil erosion; widespread poaching
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing landlocked; most of the country is savanna grassland with the population predominantly rural
   People    Rwanda
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 10,186,063
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2008 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing 0-14 years: 41.9% (male 2,143,479/female 2,124,588)
15-64 years: 55.7% (male 2,826,557/female 2,842,020)
65 years and over: 2.4% (male 99,721/female 149,698) (2008 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing total: 18.7 years
male: 18.5 years
female: 18.9 years (2008 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing 2.779% (2008 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 39.97 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 14.46 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 2.29 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2008 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 83.42 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 88.53 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 78.16 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total population: 49.76 years
male: 48.56 years
female: 51 years (2008 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 5.31 children born/woman (2008 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 5.1% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 250,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 22,000 (2003 est.)
Major infectious diseases:
Definition Field Listing degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: malaria (2008)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing noun: Rwandan(s)
adjective: Rwandan
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing Hutu (Bantu) 84%, Tutsi (Hamitic) 15%, Twa (Pygmy) 1%
Religions:
Definition Field Listing Roman Catholic 56.5%, Protestant 26%, Adventist 11.1%, Muslim 4.6%, indigenous beliefs 0.1%, none 1.7% (2001)
Languages:
Definition Field Listing Kinyarwanda (official) universal Bantu vernacular, French (official), English (official), Kiswahili (Swahili) used in commercial centers
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 70.4%
male: 76.3%
female: 64.7% (2003 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
Definition Field Listing total: 9 years
male: 8 years
female: 9 years (2005)
Education expenditures:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 3.8% of GDP (2005)
People - note:
Definition Field Listing Rwanda is the most densely populated country in Africa
   Government    Rwanda
Country name:
Definition Field Listing conventional long form: Republic of Rwanda
conventional short form: Rwanda
local long form: Republika y'u Rwanda
local short form: Rwanda
former: Ruanda, German East Africa
Government type:
Definition Field Listing republic; presidential, multiparty system
Capital:
Definition Field Listing name: Kigali
geographic coordinates: 1 57 S, 30 04 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing 4 provinces (in French - provinces, singular - province; in Kinyarwanda - intara for singular and plural) and 1 city* (in French - ville; in Kinyarwanda - umujyi); Est (Eastern), Kigali*, Nord (Northern), Ouest (Western), Sud (Southern)
Independence:
Definition Field Listing 1 July 1962 (from Belgium-administered UN trusteeship)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing Independence Day, 1 July (1962)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing new constitution passed by referendum 26 May 2003
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing based on German and Belgian civil law systems and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing chief of state: President Paul KAGAME (since 22 April 2000)
head of government: Prime Minister Bernard MAKUZA (since 8 March 2000)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: President elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (eligible for a second term); elections last held 25 August 2003 (next to be held in 2010)
election results: Paul KAGAME elected president in first direct popular vote; Paul KAGAME 95.05%, Faustin TWAGIRAMUNGU 3.62%, Jean-Nepomuscene NAYINZIRA 1.33%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing bicameral Parliament consists of Senate (26 seats; 12 members elected by local councils, 8 appointed by the president, 4 by the Political Organizations Forum, 2 represent institutions of higher learning; to serve eight-year terms) and Chamber of Deputies (80 seats; 53 members elected by popular vote, 24 women elected by local bodies, 3 selected by youth and disability organizations; to serve five-year terms)
elections: Senate - members appointed as part of the transitional government (next to be held in 2011); Chamber of Deputies - last held 15 September 2008 (next to be held September 2013)
election results: percent of vote by party - RPF 78.8%, PSD 13.1%, PL 7.5%; seats by party - RPF 42, PSD 7, PL 4, additional 27 members indirectly elected
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing Supreme Court; High Courts of the Republic; Provincial Courts; District Courts; mediation committees
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing Centrist Democratic Party or PDC [Alfred MUKEZAMFURA]; Democratic Popular Union of Rwanda or UDPR [Adrien RANGIRA]; Democratic Republican Movement or MDR [Celestin KABANDA] (officially banned); Islamic Democratic Party or PDI [Andre BUMAYA]; Liberal Party or PL [Protais MITALI]; Party for Democratic Renewal (officially banned); Rwandan Patriotic Front or RPF [Paul KAGAME]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Vincent BIRUTA]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing IBUKA (association of genocide survivors)
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing ACP, AfDB, AU, CEPGL, COMESA, EAC, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIS, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing chief of mission: Ambassador James KOMONYO
chancery: 1714 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 232-2882
FAX: [1] (202) 232-4544
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing chief of mission: Ambassador Michael ARIETTI
embassy: 337 Boulevard de la Revolution, Kigali
mailing address: B. P. 28, Kigali
telephone: [250] 50 56 01 through 03
FAX: [250] 57 2128
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing three horizontal bands of sky blue (top, double width), yellow, and green, with a golden sun with 24 rays near the fly end of the blue band
   Economy    Rwanda
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing Rwanda is a poor rural country with about 90% of the population engaged in (mainly subsistence) agriculture. It is the most densely populated country in Africa and is landlocked with few natural resources and minimal industry. Primary foreign exchange earners are coffee and tea. The 1994 genocide decimated Rwanda's fragile economic base, severely impoverished the population, particularly women, and eroded the country's ability to attract private and external investment. However, Rwanda has made substantial progress in stabilizing and rehabilitating its economy to pre-1994 levels, although poverty levels are higher now. GDP has rebounded and inflation has been curbed. Despite Rwanda's fertile ecosystem, food production often does not keep pace with population growth, requiring food imports. Rwanda continues to receive substantial aid money and obtained IMF-World Bank Heavily Indebted Poor Country (HIPC) initiative debt relief in 2005-06. Rwanda also received Millennium Challenge Account Threshold status in 2006. The government has embraced an expansionary fiscal policy to reduce poverty by improving education, infrastructure, and foreign and domestic investment and pursuing market-oriented reforms, although energy shortages, instability in neighboring states, and lack of adequate transportation linkages to other countries continue to handicap growth.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $8.057 billion (2007 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
Definition Field Listing $3.32 billion (2007 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 6% (2007 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $800 (2007 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing agriculture: 36.9%
industry: 21.7%
services: 41.4% (2007 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 4.6 million (2000)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing agriculture: 90%
industry and services: 10% (2000)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order NA%
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing 60% (2001 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing lowest 10%: 2.1%
highest 10%: 38.2% (2000)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing 46.8 (2000)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 9.1% (2007 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 22% of GDP (2007 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing revenues: $801.8 million
expenditures: $878.3 million; including capital expenditures of $NA (2007 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing coffee, tea, pyrethrum (insecticide made from chrysanthemums), bananas, beans, sorghum, potatoes; livestock
Industries:
Definition Field Listing cement, agricultural products, small-scale beverages, soap, furniture, shoes, plastic goods, textiles, cigarettes
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 13.1% (2007 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 95 million kWh (2005)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 198.4 million kWh (2005)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing 10 million kWh (2005 est.)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing 120 million kWh (2005)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 5,300 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0 bbl/day (2004)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 5,165 bbl/day (2004)
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0 bbl (1 January 2006 est.)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0 cu m (2005)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 54.32 billion cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order -$147 million (2007 est.)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $184 million f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing coffee, tea, hides, tin ore
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing China 9%, Germany 6.8%, US 5%, Hong Kong 4.8% (2007)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $637 million f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, steel, petroleum products, cement and construction material
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing Kenya 19.5%, Uganda 6.8%, Germany 6.1%, Belgium 5.9%, China 5% (2007)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing $576 million (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $552.8 million (31 December 2007 est.)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $1.4 billion (2004 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $NA
Currency (code):
Definition Field Listing Rwandan franc (RWF)
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing Rwandan francs per US dollar - 585 (2007), 560 (2006), 610 (2005), 574.62 (2004), 537.66 (2003)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing calendar year
   Communications    Rwanda
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 23,100 (2007)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 635,100 (2007)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing general assessment: small, inadequate telephone system primarily serves business and government
domestic: the capital, Kigali, is connected to the centers of the provinces by microwave radio relay and, recently, by cellular telephone service; much of the network depends on wire and HF radiotelephone; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular telephone density is only about 4 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 250; international connections employ microwave radio relay to neighboring countries and satellite communications to more distant countries; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) in Kigali (includes telex and telefax service)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing AM 0, FM 8 (two main FM programs are broadcast through a system of repeaters, three international FM programs include the BBC, VOA, and Deutchewelle), shortwave 1 (2005)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing 2 (2004)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing .rw
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 1,592 (2007)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 100,000 (2007)
   Transportation    Rwanda
Airports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 9 (2007)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing total: 4
over 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 1 (2007)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing total: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 3 (2007)
Roadways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 14,008 km
paved: 2,662 km
unpaved: 11,346 km (2004)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order Lac Kivu navigable by shallow-draft barges and native craft (2006)
Ports and terminals:
Definition Field Listing Cyangugu, Gisenyi, Kibuye
   Military    Rwanda
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing Rwandan Defense Forces: Army, Air Force
Military service age and obligation:
Definition Field Listing 18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2008)
Manpower available for military service:
Definition Field Listing males age 16-49: 2,430,469
females age 16-49: 2,392,933 (2008 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing males age 16-49: 1,404,066
females age 16-49: 1,403,700 (2008 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
Definition Field Listing male: 111,791
female: 112,131 (2008 est.)
Military expenditures:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 2.9% of GDP (2006 est.)
   Transnational Issues    Rwanda
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing fighting among ethnic groups - loosely associated political rebels, armed gangs, and various government forces in Great Lakes region transcending the boundaries of Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, and Uganda - abated substantially from a decade ago due largely to UN peacekeeping, international mediation, and efforts by local governments to create civil societies; nonetheless, 57,000 Rwandan refugees still reside in 21 African states, including Zambia, Gabon, and 20,000 who fled to Burundi in 2005 and 2006 to escape drought and recriminations from traditional courts investigating the 1994 massacres; the 2005 DROC and Rwanda border verification mechanism to stem rebel actions on both sides of the border remains in place
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
Definition Field Listing refugees (country of origin): 46,272 (Democratic Republic of the Congo); 4,400 (Burundi) (2007)


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Source : CIA's World Fact Book 2008

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