New Zealand

source : World Fact Book 2008 (October 2008)

SEE UPDATED INFORMATION HERE

   Introduction    New Zealand
Background:
Definition Field Listing The Polynesian Maori reached New Zealand in about A.D. 800. In 1840, their chieftains entered into a compact with Britain, the Treaty of Waitangi, in which they ceded sovereignty to Queen Victoria while retaining territorial rights. In that same year, the British began the first organized colonial settlement. A series of land wars between 1843 and 1872 ended with the defeat of the native peoples. The British colony of New Zealand became an independent dominion in 1907 and supported the UK militarily in both World Wars. New Zealand's full participation in a number of defense alliances lapsed by the 1980s. In recent years, the government has sought to address longstanding Maori grievances.
   Geography    New Zealand
Location:
Definition Field Listing Oceania, islands in the South Pacific Ocean, southeast of Australia
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing 41 00 S, 174 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing Oceania
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 268,680 sq km
land: 268,021 sq km
water: NA
note: includes Antipodes Islands, Auckland Islands, Bounty Islands, Campbell Island, Chatham Islands, and Kermadec Islands
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing about the size of Colorado
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing 0 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing 15,134 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Climate:
Definition Field Listing temperate with sharp regional contrasts
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing predominately mountainous with some large coastal plains
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Aoraki-Mount Cook 3,754 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing natural gas, iron ore, sand, coal, timber, hydropower, gold, limestone
Land use:
Definition Field Listing arable land: 5.54%
permanent crops: 6.92%
other: 87.54% (2005)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing 2,850 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources:
Definition Field Listing 397 cu km (1995)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
Definition Field Listing total: 2.11 cu km/yr (48%/9%/42%)
per capita: 524 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing earthquakes are common, though usually not severe; volcanic activity
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing deforestation; soil erosion; native flora and fauna hard-hit by invasive species
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Antarctic Seals, Marine Life Conservation
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing about 80% of the population lives in cities; Wellington is the southernmost national capital in the world
   People    New Zealand
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 4,173,460 (July 2008 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing 0-14 years: 20.9% (male 446,883/female 424,240)
15-64 years: 66.5% (male 1,390,669/female 1,385,686)
65 years and over: 12.6% (male 238,560/female 287,422) (2008 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing total: 36.3 years
male: 35.6 years
female: 37.1 years (2008 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing 0.971% (2008 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 14.09 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 7 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 2.62 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.83 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2008 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 4.99 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 5.62 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 4.33 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total population: 80.24 years
male: 78.33 years
female: 82.25 years (2008 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 2.11 children born/woman (2008 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0.1% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 1,400 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order fewer than 200 (2003 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing noun: New Zealander(s)
adjective: New Zealand
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing European 69.8%, Maori 7.9%, Asian 5.7%, Pacific islander 4.4%, other 0.5%, mixed 7.8%, unspecified 3.8% (2001 census)
Religions:
Definition Field Listing Anglican 14.9%, Roman Catholic 12.4%, Presbyterian 10.9%, Methodist 2.9%, Pentecostal 1.7%, Baptist 1.3%, other Christian 9.4%, other 3.3%, unspecified 17.2%, none 26% (2001 census)
Languages:
Definition Field Listing English (official), Maori (official), Sign Language (official)
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99%
male: 99%
female: 99% (2003 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
Definition Field Listing total: 19 years
male: 19 years
female: 20 years (2006)
Education expenditures:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 6.2% of GDP (2006)
   Government    New Zealand
Country name:
Definition Field Listing conventional long form: none
conventional short form: New Zealand
abbreviation: NZ
Government type:
Definition Field Listing parliamentary democracy
Capital:
Definition Field Listing name: Wellington
geographic coordinates: 41 28 S, 174 51 E
time difference: UTC+12 (17 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins first Sunday in October; ends third Sunday in March
note: New Zealand is divided into two time zones, including Chatham Island
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing 16 regions and 1 territory*; Auckland, Bay of Plenty, Canterbury, Chatham Islands*, Gisborne, Hawke's Bay, Manawatu-Wanganui, Marlborough, Nelson, Northland, Otago, Southland, Taranaki, Tasman, Waikato, Wellington, West Coast
Dependent areas:
Definition Field Listing Cook Islands, Niue, Tokelau
Independence:
Definition Field Listing 26 September 1907 (from UK)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing Waitangi Day (Treaty of Waitangi established British sovereignty over New Zealand), 6 February (1840); ANZAC Day (commemorated as the anniversary of the landing of troops of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps during World War I at Gallipoli, Turkey), 25 April (1915)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing consists of a series of legal documents, including certain acts of the UK and New Zealand Parliaments, as well as The Constitution Act 1986, which is the principal formal charter; adopted 1 January 1987, effective 1 January 1987
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing based on English law, with special land legislation and land courts for the Maori; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Anand SATYANAND (since 23 August 2006)
head of government: Prime Minister Helen CLARK (since 10 December 1999); Deputy Prime Minister Michael CULLEN (since July 2002)
cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the governor general on the recommendation of the prime minister
elections: the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; deputy prime minister appointed by the governor general
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing unicameral House of Representatives - commonly called Parliament (120 seats; 69 members elected by popular vote in single-member constituencies including 7 Maori constituencies, and 51 proportional seats chosen from party lists; to serve three-year terms)
elections: last held 17 September 2005 (next to be held not later than 15 November 2008)
election results: percent of vote by party - NZLP 41.1%, NP 39.1%, NZFP 5.7%, Green Party 5.3%, Maori 2.1%, UF 2.7%, ACT New Zealand 1.5%, Progressive 1.2%, other 1.3%; seats by party - NZLP 50, NP 48, NZFP 7, Green Party 6, Maori 4, UF 3, ACT New Zealand 2, Progressive 1
note: results of 2005 election saw the total number of seats increase to 121 because the Maori Party won one more electorate seat than its entitlement under the party vote
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; High Court; note - judges appointed by the Governor-General
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing ACT New Zealand [Rodney HIDE]; Green Party [Jeanette FITZSIMONS]; Maori Party [Whatarangi WINIATA]; National Party or NP [John KEY]; New Zealand First Party or NZFP [Winston PETERS]; New Zealand Labor Party or NZLP [Helen CLARK]; Progressive Party [James (Jim) ANDERTON]; United Future or UF [Peter DUNNE]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing Women's Electoral Lobby or WEL
other: apartheid groups; civil rights groups; farmers groups; Maori; nuclear weapons groups; women's rights groups
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing ADB, ANZUS (US suspended security obligations to NZ on 11 August 1986), APEC, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia Group, BIS, C, CP, EAS, EBRD, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, NAM (guest), NSG, OECD, OPCW, PCA, PIF, Sparteca, SPC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIS, UNMIT, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing chief of mission: Ambassador Roy N. FERGUSON
chancery: 37 Observatory Circle NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 328-4800
FAX: [1] (202) 667-5227
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing chief of mission: Ambassador William P. McCORMICK
embassy: 29 Fitzherbert Terrace, Thorndon, Wellington
mailing address: P. O. Box 1190, Wellington; PSC 467, Box 1, APO AP 96531-1034
telephone: [64] (4) 462-6000
FAX: [64] (4) 499-0490
consulate(s) general: Auckland
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant with four red five-pointed stars edged in white centered in the outer half of the flag; the stars represent the Southern Cross constellation
Government - note:
Definition Field Listing while not an official symbol, the Kiwi, a small native flightless bird, represents New Zealand
   Economy    New Zealand
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing Over the past 20 years the government has transformed New Zealand from an agrarian economy dependent on concessionary British market access to a more industrialized, free market economy that can compete globally. This dynamic growth has boosted real incomes - but left behind many at the bottom of the ladder - and broadened and deepened the technological capabilities of the industrial sector. Per capita income has risen for eight consecutive years and reached $27,300 in 2007 in purchasing power parity terms. Consumer and government spending have driven growth in recent years, and exports picked up in 2006 after struggling for several years. Exports were equal to about 22% of GDP in 2007, down from 33% of GDP in 2001. Thus far the economy has been resilient, and the Labor Government promises that expenditures on health, education, and pensions will increase proportionately to output. Inflationary pressures have built in recent years and the central bank raised its key rate 13 times since January 2004 to finish 2007 at 8.25%. A large balance of payments deficit poses another challenge in managing the economy.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $112.4 billion (2007 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
Definition Field Listing $128.1 billion (2007 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 3.1% (2007 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $27,200 (2007 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing agriculture: 4.5%
industry: 26.2%
services: 69.3% (2007 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 2.236 million (2007 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing agriculture: 7%
industry: 19%
services: 74% (2006 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 3.6% (2007 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing lowest 10%: %NA
highest 10%: %NA
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing 36.2 (1997)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 2.4% (2007 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 23.3% of GDP (2007 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing revenues: $58.31 billion
expenditures: $53.5 billion (2007 est.)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 20.7% of GDP (2007 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing dairy products, lamb and mutton; wheat, barley, potatoes, pulses, fruits, vegetables; wool, beef; fish
Industries:
Definition Field Listing food processing, wood and paper products, textiles, machinery, transportation equipment, banking and insurance, tourism, mining
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 1.5% (2007 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 42.06 billion kWh (2006 est.)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 37.39 billion kWh (2006 est.)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing 0 kWh (2005)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing 0 kWh (2005)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 25,880 bbl/day (2006 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 156,000 bbl/day (2006 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 15,720 bbl/day (2004)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 140,900 bbl/day (2004)
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 55.5 million bbl (1 January 2006 est.)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 3.9 billion cu m (2006 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 3.7 billion cu m (2006 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0 cu m (2005)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 29.67 billion cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order -$10.23 billion (2007 est.)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $27.35 billion (2007 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing dairy products, meat, wood and wood products, fish, machinery
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing Australia 22%, US 11.5%, Japan 9.2%, China 5.3%, UK 4.6% (2007)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $29.06 billion (2007 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing machinery and equipment, vehicles and aircraft, petroleum, electronics, textiles, plastics
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing Australia 20.7%, China 13.4%, US 9.7%, Japan 9.5%, Singapore 4.9%, Germany 4.7% (2007)
Economic aid - donor:
Definition Field Listing ODA, $259 million (2006)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $17.25 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $51.44 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $71.31 billion (2007 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $NA
Market value of publicly traded shares:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $40.62 billion (2005)
Currency (code):
Definition Field Listing New Zealand dollar (NZD)
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing New Zealand dollars per US dollar - 1.3811 (2007), 1.5408 (2006), 1.4203 (2005), 1.5087 (2004), 1.7221 (2003)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing 1 April - 31 March
note: this is the fiscal year for tax purposes
   Communications    New Zealand
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 1.706 million (2007)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 4.245 million (2007)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing general assessment: excellent domestic and international systems
domestic: NA
international: country code - 64; the Southern Cross submarine cable system provides links to Australia, Fiji, and the US; satellite earth stations - 8 (1 Inmarsat - Pacific Ocean, 7 other)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing AM 124, FM 290, shortwave 4 (1998)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing 41 (plus about 700 repeaters) (1997)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing .nz
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 1.433 million (2007)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 3.36 million (2007)
   Transportation    New Zealand
Airports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 121 (2007)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing total: 41
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 11
914 to 1,523 m: 26
under 914 m: 1 (2007)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing total: 80
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 31
under 914 m: 46 (2007)
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing condensate 331 km; gas 1,896 km; liquid petroleum gas 172 km; oil 288 km; refined products 260 km (2007)
Railways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 4,128 km
narrow gauge: 4,128 km 1.067-m gauge (506 km electrified) (2006)
Roadways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 93,460 km
paved: 60,303 km (includes 171 km of expressways)
unpaved: 33,157 km (2005)
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 13 ships (1000 GRT or over) 135,325 GRT/126,527 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 3, cargo 2, chemical tanker 1, passenger/cargo 4, petroleum tanker 1, roll on/roll off 2
foreign-owned: 3 (Australia 1, Germany 1, South Africa 1)
registered in other countries: 5 (Antigua and Barbuda 2, Cook Islands 1, France 1, UK 1) (2008)
Ports and terminals:
Definition Field Listing Auckland, Lyttelton, Marsden Point, Tauranga, Wellington, Whangarei
   Military    New Zealand
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing New Zealand Defense Force (NZDF): New Zealand Army, Royal New Zealand Navy, Royal New Zealand Air Force (2008)
Military service age and obligation:
Definition Field Listing 17 years of age for voluntary military service; soldiers cannot be deployed until the age of 18; no conscription (2008)
Manpower available for military service:
Definition Field Listing males age 16-49: 1,009,298
females age 16-49: 997,134 (2008 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing males age 16-49: 833,073
females age 16-49: 822,807 (2008 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
Definition Field Listing male: 31,834
female: 30,243 (2008 est.)
Military expenditures:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 1% of GDP (2005 est.)
   Transnational Issues    New Zealand
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing asserts a territorial claim in Antarctica (Ross Dependency)
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing significant consumer of amphetamines


Free classified ads to find a job in your area


Students of the World => Countries of the World => New Zealand
Home About us Penpals for students Countries of the World Schools of the World Games Blogs Clubs Forums Links

Countries of the World - Detailed information about New Zealand - www.StudentsoftheWorld.info
Source : CIA's World Fact Book 2008

Since 2003, January 19