India

source : World Fact Book 2008 (October 2008)

SEE UPDATED INFORMATION HERE

   Introduction    India
Background:
Definition Field Listing Aryan tribes from the northwest infiltrated onto the Indian subcontinent about 1500 B.C.; their merger with the earlier Dravidian inhabitants created the classical Indian culture. The Maurya Empire of the 4th and 3rd centuries B.C. - which reached its zenith under ASHOKA - united much of South Asia. The Golden Age ushered in by the Gupta dynasty (4th to 6th centuries A.D.) saw a flowering of Indian science, art, and culture. Arab incursions starting in the 8th century and Turkic in the 12th were followed by those of European traders, beginning in the late 15th century. By the 19th century, Britain had assumed political control of virtually all Indian lands. Indian armed forces in the British army played a vital role in both World Wars. Nonviolent resistance to British colonialism led by Mohandas GANDHI and Jawaharlal NEHRU brought independence in 1947. The subcontinent was divided into the secular state of India and the smaller Muslim state of Pakistan. A third war between the two countries in 1971 resulted in East Pakistan becoming the separate nation of Bangladesh. India's nuclear weapons testing in 1998 caused Pakistan to conduct its own tests that same year. The dispute between the countries over the state of Kashmir is ongoing, but discussions and confidence-building measures have led to decreased tensions since 2002. Despite impressive gains in economic investment and output, India faces pressing problems such as significant overpopulation, environmental degradation, extensive poverty, and ethnic and religious strife.
   Geography    India
Location:
Definition Field Listing Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal, between Burma and Pakistan
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing 20 00 N, 77 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing Asia
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 3,287,590 sq km
land: 2,973,190 sq km
water: 314,400 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing slightly more than one-third the size of the US
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing total: 14,103 km
border countries: Bangladesh 4,053 km, Bhutan 605 km, Burma 1,463 km, China 3,380 km, Nepal 1,690 km, Pakistan 2,912 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing 7,000 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Climate:
Definition Field Listing varies from tropical monsoon in south to temperate in north
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing upland plain (Deccan Plateau) in south, flat to rolling plain along the Ganges, deserts in west, Himalayas in north
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Kanchenjunga 8,598 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing coal (fourth-largest reserves in the world), iron ore, manganese, mica, bauxite, titanium ore, chromite, natural gas, diamonds, petroleum, limestone, arable land
Land use:
Definition Field Listing arable land: 48.83%
permanent crops: 2.8%
other: 48.37% (2005)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing 558,080 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources:
Definition Field Listing 1,907.8 cu km (1999)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
Definition Field Listing total: 645.84 cu km/yr (8%/5%/86%)
per capita: 585 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing droughts; flash floods, as well as widespread and destructive flooding from monsoonal rains; severe thunderstorms; earthquakes
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing deforestation; soil erosion; overgrazing; desertification; air pollution from industrial effluents and vehicle emissions; water pollution from raw sewage and runoff of agricultural pesticides; tap water is not potable throughout the country; huge and growing population is overstraining natural resources
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing dominates South Asian subcontinent; near important Indian Ocean trade routes; Kanchenjunga, third tallest mountain in the world, lies on the border with Nepal
   People    India
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 1,147,995,904 (July 2008 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing 0-14 years: 31.5% (male 189,238,487/female 172,168,306)
15-64 years: 63.3% (male 374,157,581/female 352,868,003)
65 years and over: 5.2% (male 28,285,796/female 31,277,725) (2008 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing total: 25.1 years
male: 24.7 years
female: 25.5 years (2008 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing 1.578% (2008 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 22.22 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 6.4 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order -0.05 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing at birth: 1.12 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female
total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2008 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 32.31 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 36.94 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 27.12 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total population: 69.25 years
male: 66.87 years
female: 71.9 years (2008 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 2.76 children born/woman (2008 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0.9% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 5.1 million (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 310,000 (2001 est.)
Major infectious diseases:
Definition Field Listing degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: chikungunya, dengue fever, Japanese encephalitis, and malaria
animal contact disease: rabies
note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2008)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing noun: Indian(s)
adjective: Indian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing Indo-Aryan 72%, Dravidian 25%, Mongoloid and other 3% (2000)
Religions:
Definition Field Listing Hindu 80.5%, Muslim 13.4%, Christian 2.3%, Sikh 1.9%, other 1.8%, unspecified 0.1% (2001 census)
Languages:
Definition Field Listing Hindi 41%, Bengali 8.1%, Telugu 7.2%, Marathi 7%, Tamil 5.9%, Urdu 5%, Gujarati 4.5%, Kannada 3.7%, Malayalam 3.2%, Oriya 3.2%, Punjabi 2.8%, Assamese 1.3%, Maithili 1.2%, other 5.9%
note: English enjoys associate status but is the most important language for national, political, and commercial communication; Hindi is the national language and primary tongue of 41% of the people; there are 14 other official languages: Bengali, Telugu, Marathi, Tamil, Urdu, Gujarati, Malayalam, Kannada, Oriya, Punjabi, Assamese, Kashmiri, Sindhi, and Sanskrit; Hindustani is a popular variant of Hindi/Urdu spoken widely throughout northern India but is not an official language (2001 census)
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 61%
male: 73.4%
female: 47.8% (2001 census)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
Definition Field Listing total: 10 years
male: 11 years
female: 9 years (2005)
Education expenditures:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 3.2% of GDP (2005)
   Government    India
Country name:
Definition Field Listing conventional long form: Republic of India
conventional short form: India
local long form: Republic of India/Bharatiya Ganarajya
local short form: India/Bharat
Government type:
Definition Field Listing federal republic
Capital:
Definition Field Listing name: New Delhi
geographic coordinates: 28 36 N, 77 12 E
time difference: UTC+5.5 (10.5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing 28 states and 7 union territories*; Andaman and Nicobar Islands*, Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chandigarh*, Chhattisgarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli*, Daman and Diu*, Delhi*, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Lakshadweep*, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Orissa, Puducherry*, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal
Independence:
Definition Field Listing 15 August 1947 (from UK)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing Republic Day, 26 January (1950)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing 26 January 1950; amended many times
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing based on English common law; judicial review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; separate personal law codes apply to Muslims, Christians, and Hindus
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing chief of state: President Pratibha PATIL (since 25 July 2007); Vice President Hamid ANSARI (since 11 August 2007)
head of government: Prime Minister Manmohan SINGH (since 22 May 2004)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
elections: president elected by an electoral college consisting of elected members of both houses of Parliament and the legislatures of the states for a five-year term (no term limits); election last held 21 July 2007 (next to be held in July 2012); vice president elected by both houses of Parliament for a five-year term; election last held 12 August 2002 (next to be held August 2007); prime minister chosen by parliamentary members of the majority party following legislative elections; election last held April - May 2004 (next to be held May 2009)
election results: Pratibha PATIL elected president; percent of vote - 65.8%; Bhairon Singh SHEKHAWAT - 34.2%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing bicameral Parliament or Sansad consists of the Council of States or Rajya Sabha (a body consisting of not more than 250 members up to 12 of whom are appointed by the president, the remainder are chosen by the elected members of the state and territorial assemblies; members serve six-year terms) and the People's Assembly or Lok Sabha (545 seats; 543 elected by popular vote, 2 appointed by the president; members serve five-year terms)
elections: People's Assembly - last held 20 April through 10 May 2004 (next must be held by May 2009)
election results: People's Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - INC 147, BJP 129, CPI (M) 43, SP 38, RJD 23, DMK 16, BSP 15, SS 12, BJD 11, CPI 10, NCP 10, JD (U) 8, SAD 8, PMK 6, JMM 5, LJSP 4, MDMK 4, TDP 4, TRS 4, independent 6, other 29, vacant 13; note - seats by party as of December 2006
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing Supreme Court (one chief justice and 25 associate justices are appointed by the president and remain in office until they reach the age of 65 or are removed for "proved misbehavior")
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing Bahujan Samaj Party or BSP [MAYAWATI]; Bharatiya Janata Party or BJP [Rajnath SINGH]; Biju Janata Dal or BJD [Naveen PATNAIK]; Communist Party of India or CPI [Ardhendu Bhushan BARDHAN]; Communist Party of India-Marxist or CPI-M [Prakash KARAT]; Dravida Munnetra Kazagham or DMK [M. KARUNANIDHI]; Indian National Congress or INC [Sonia GANDHI]; Janata Dal (United) or JD(U) [Sharad YADAV]; Jharkhand Mukti Morcha or JMM [Shibu SOREN]; Left Front (an alliance of Indian leftist parties); Lok Jan Shakti Party or LJSP [Ram Vilas PASWAN]; Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam or MDMK [V. Gopalswamy VAIKO]; Nationalist Congress Party or NCP [Sharad PAWAR]; Pattali Makkal Katchi or PMK [S. RAMADOSS]; Rashtriya Janata Dal or RJD [Laloo Prasad YADAV]; Samajwadi Party or SP [Mulayam Singh YADAV]; Shiromani Akali Dal or SAD [Parkash Singh BADAL]; Shiv Sena or SS [Bal THACKERAY]; Telangana Rashtriya Samithi or TRS [K. Chandrashekhar RAO]; Telugu Desam Party or TDP [Chandrababu NAIDU]; United Progressive Alliance or UPA [Sonia GANDHI] (India's ruling party coalition of 12 political parties); note - India has dozens of national and regional political parties; only parties or coalitions with four or more seats in the People's Assembly are listed
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing All Parties Hurriyat Conference in the Kashmir Valley (separatist group); Bajrang Dal (religious organization); National Socialist Council of Nagaland in the northeast (separatist group); Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (religious organization); Vishwa Hindu Parishad (religious organization
other: numerous religious or militant/chauvinistic organizations; various separatist groups seeking greater communal and/or regional autonomy
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing ADB, AfDB (nonregional members), ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIMSTEC, BIS, C, CERN (observer), CP, EAS, FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAS (observer), MIGA, MONUC, NAM, OAS (observer), OPCW, PCA, PIF (partner), SAARC, SACEP, SCO (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNITAR, UNMEE, UNMIS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing chief of mission: Ambassador Ranendra SEN
chancery: 2107 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008; note - Consular Wing located at 2536 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 939-7000
FAX: [1] (202) 265-4351
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, New York, San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing chief of mission: Ambassador David C. MULFORD
embassy: Shantipath, Chanakyapuri, New Delhi 110021
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [91] (011) 2419-8000
FAX: [91] (11) 2419-0017
consulate(s) general: Chennai (Madras), Kolkata (Calcutta), Mumbai (Bombay)
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing three equal horizontal bands of saffron (subdued orange) (top), white, and green with a blue chakra (24-spoked wheel) centered in the white band; similar to the flag of Niger, which has a small orange disk centered in the white band
   Economy    India
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing India's diverse economy encompasses traditional village farming, modern agriculture, handicrafts, a wide range of modern industries, and a multitude of services. Services are the major source of economic growth, accounting for more than half of India's output with less than one third of its labor force. About three-fifths of the work force is in agriculture, leading the United Progressive Alliance (UPA) government to articulate an economic reform program that includes developing basic infrastructure to improve the lives of the rural poor and boost economic performance. The government has reduced controls on foreign trade and investment. Higher limits on foreign direct investment were permitted in a few key sectors, such as telecommunications. However, tariff spikes in sensitive categories, including agriculture, and incremental progress on economic reforms still hinder foreign access to India's vast and growing market. Privatization of government-owned industries remains stalled and continues to generate political debate; populist pressure from within the UPA government and from its Left Front allies continues to restrain needed initiatives. The economy has posted an average growth rate of more than 7% in the decade since 1997, reducing poverty by about 10 percentage points. India achieved 8.5% GDP growth in 2006, and again in 2007, significantly expanding production of manufactures. India is capitalizing on its large numbers of well-educated people skilled in the English language to become a major exporter of software services and software workers. Economic expansion has helped New Delhi continue to make progress in reducing its federal fiscal deficit. However, strong growth combined with easy consumer credit and a real estate boom fueled inflation concerns in 2006 and 2007, leading to a series of central bank interest rate hikes that have slowed credit growth and eased inflation concerns. The huge and growing population is the fundamental social, economic, and environmental problem.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $2.966 trillion (2007 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
Definition Field Listing $1.099 trillion (2007 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 9% (2007 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $2,600 (2007 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing agriculture: 17.8%
industry: 29.4%
services: 52.8% (2007 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 516.4 million (2007 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing agriculture: 60%
industry: 12%
services: 28% (2003)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 7.2% (2007 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing 25% (2007 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing lowest 10%: 3.6%
highest 10%: 31.1% (2004)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing 36.8 (2004)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 6.4% (2007 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 33.9% of GDP (2007 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing revenues: $141.2 billion
expenditures: $172.6 billion (2007 est.)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 58.2% of GDP (federal and state debt combined) (2007 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing rice, wheat, oilseed, cotton, jute, tea, sugarcane, potatoes; cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats, poultry; fish
Industries:
Definition Field Listing textiles, chemicals, food processing, steel, transportation equipment, cement, mining, petroleum, machinery, software
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 8.5% (2007 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 661.6 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 488.5 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing 67 million kWh (2005)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing 1.764 billion kWh (2005)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 810,000 bbl/day (2007 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 2.438 million bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 350,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 2.098 million bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 5.7 billion bbl (1 January 2007 est.)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 28.68 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 34.47 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 5.793 billion cu m (2005)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 1.056 trillion cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order -$12.11 billion (2007 est.)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $151.3 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing petroleum products, textile goods, gems and jewelry, engineering goods, chemicals, leather manufactures
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing US 15%, China 8.8%, UAE 8.7%, UK 4.4% (2007)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $230.5 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing crude oil, machinery, gems, fertilizer, chemicals
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing China 10.7%, US 7.8%, Germany 4.5%, Singapore 4.4% (2007)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing $1.724 billion (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $275 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $149.2 billion (31 December 2007)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $95.96 billion (2007 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $37.5 billion (2007 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $818.9 billion (2006)
Currency (code):
Definition Field Listing Indian rupee (INR)
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing Indian rupees per US dollar - 41.487 (2007), 45.3 (2006), 44.101 (2005), 45.317 (2004), 46.583 (2003)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing 1 April - 31 March
   Communications    India
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 38.76 million (2008)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 296.08 million (2008)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing general assessment: recent deregulation and liberalization of telecommunications laws and policies have prompted rapid growth; local and long distance service provided throughout all regions of the country, with services primarily concentrated in the urban areas; steady improvement is taking place with the recent admission of private and private-public investors, but combined fixed and mobile telephone density remains low at about 30 for each 100 persons nationwide and much lower for persons in rural areas; rapid growth in cellular service with modest declines in fixed lines
domestic: mobile cellular service introduced in 1994 and organized nationwide into four metropolitan areas and 19 telecom circles each with about three private service providers and one state-owned service provider; in recent years significant trunk capacity added in the form of fiber-optic cable and one of the world's largest domestic satellite systems, the Indian National Satellite system (INSAT), with 6 satellites supporting 33,000 very small aperture terminals (VSAT)
international: country code - 91; a number of major international submarine cable systems, including Sea-Me-We-3 with landing sites at Cochin and Mumbai (Bombay), Sea-Me-We-4 with a landing site at Chennai, Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) with a landing site at Mumbai (Bombay), South Africa - Far East (SAFE) with a landing site at Cochin, the i2i cable network linking to Singapore with landing sites at Mumbai (Bombay) and Chennai (Madras), and Tata Indicom linking Singapore and Chennai (Madras), provide a significant increase in the bandwidth available for both voice and data traffic; satellite earth stations - 8 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and 1 Inmarsat (Indian Ocean region); 9 gateway exchanges operating from Mumbai (Bombay), New Delhi, Kolkata (Calcutta), Chennai (Madras), Jalandhar, Kanpur, Gandhinagar, Hyderabad, and Ernakulam (2008)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing AM 153, FM 91, shortwave 68 (1998)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing 562 (1997)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing .in
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 2.306 million (2007)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 80 million (2007)
   Transportation    India
Airports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 346 (2007)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing total: 250
over 3,047 m: 18
2,438 to 3,047 m: 52
1,524 to 2,437 m: 75
914 to 1,523 m: 84
under 914 m: 21 (2007)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing total: 96
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 40
under 914 m: 47 (2007)
Heliports:
Definition Field Listing 30 (2007)
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing condensate/gas 9 km; gas 7,488 km; liquid petroleum gas 1,861 km; oil 7,883 km; refined products 6,422 km (2007)
Railways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 63,221 km
broad gauge: 46,807 km 1.676-m gauge (17,343 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 13,290 km 1.000-m gauge (165 km electrified); 3,124 km 0.762-m gauge and 0.610-m gauge (2006)
Roadways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 3,383,344 km
paved: 1,603,705 km
unpaved: 1,779,639 km (2002)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 14,500 km
note: 5,200 km on major rivers and 485 km on canals suitable for mechanized vessels (2006)
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 493 ships (1000 GRT or over) 8,272,533 GRT/14,117,658 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 104, cargo 232, carrier 1, chemical tanker 19, container 12, liquefied gas 19, passenger 3, passenger/cargo 11, petroleum tanker 91, roll on/roll off 1
foreign-owned: 12 (China 1, Hong Kong 1, UAE 8, UK 2)
registered in other countries: 59 (Barbados 1, Comoros 2, Cyprus 1, Dominica 2, Gibraltar 1, Liberia 2, Malta 3, Panama 29, Singapore 10, St Kitts and Nevis 1, St Vincent and the Grenadines 6, unknown 1) (2008)
Ports and terminals:
Definition Field Listing Chennai, Haldia, Jawaharal Nehru, Kandla, Kolkata (Calcutta), Mormugao, Mumbai (Bombay), New Mangalore, Vishakhapatnam
   Military    India
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing Army, Navy (includes naval air arm), Air Force (Bharatiya Vayu Sena), Coast Guard (2008)
Military service age and obligation:
Definition Field Listing 16 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription; women officers allowed in noncombat roles only (2008)
Manpower available for military service:
Definition Field Listing males age 16-49: 301,094,084
females age 16-49: 283,047,141 (2008 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing males age 16-49: 231,161,111
females age 16-49: 236,633,962 (2008 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
Definition Field Listing male: 11,592,516
female: 10,636,857 (2008 est.)
Military expenditures:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 2.5% of GDP (2006)
   Transnational Issues    India
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing since China and India launched a security and foreign policy dialogue in 2005, consolidated discussions related to the dispute over most of their rugged, militarized boundary, regional nuclear proliferation, Indian claims that China transferred missiles to Pakistan, and other matters continue; various talks and confidence-building measures have cautiously begun to defuse tensions over Kashmir, particularly since the October 2005 earthquake in the region; Kashmir nevertheless remains the site of the world's largest and most militarized territorial dispute with portions under the de facto administration of China (Aksai Chin), India (Jammu and Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas); India and Pakistan have maintained the 2004 cease fire in Kashmir and initiated discussions on defusing the armed stand-off in the Siachen glacier region; Pakistan protests India's fencing the highly militarized Line of Control and construction of the Baglihar Dam on the Chenab River in Jammu and Kashmir, which is part of the larger dispute on water sharing of the Indus River and its tributaries; UN Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP) has maintained a small group of peacekeepers since 1949; India does not recognize Pakistan's ceding historic Kashmir lands to China in 1964; to defuse tensions and prepare for discussions on a maritime boundary, India and Pakistan seek technical resolution of the disputed boundary in Sir Creek estuary at the mouth of the Rann of Kutch in the Arabian Sea; Pakistani maps continue to show its Junagadh claim in Indian Gujarat State; discussions with Bangladesh remain stalled to delimit a small section of river boundary, to exchange territory for 51 Bangladeshi exclaves in India and 111 Indian exclaves in Bangladesh, to allocate divided villages, and to stop illegal cross-border trade, migration, violence, and transit of terrorists through the porous border; Bangladesh protests India's attempts to fence off high-traffic sections of the border; dispute with Bangladesh over New Moore/South Talpatty/Purbasha Island in the Bay of Bengal deters maritime boundary delimitation; India seeks cooperation from Bhutan and Burma to keep Indian Nagaland and Assam separatists from hiding in remote areas along the borders; Joint Border Committee with Nepal continues to examine contested boundary sections, including the 400 square kilometer dispute over the source of the Kalapani River; India maintains a strict border regime to keep out Maoist insurgents and control illegal cross-border activities from Nepal
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
Definition Field Listing refugees (country of origin): 77,200 (Tibet/China); 69,609 (Sri Lanka); 9,472 (Afghanistan)
IDPs: at least 600,000 (about half are Kashmiri Pandits from Jammu and Kashmir) (2007)
Trafficking in persons:
Definition Field Listing current situation: India is a source, destination, and transit country for men, women, and children trafficked for the purposes of forced labor and commercial sexual exploitation; internal forced labor may constitute India's largest trafficking problem; men, women, and children are held in debt bondage and face forced labor working in brick kilns, rice mills, agriculture, and embroidery factories; women and girls are trafficked within the country for the purposes of commercial sexual exploitation and forced marriage; children are subjected to forced labor as factory workers, domestic servants, beggars, and agriculture workers, and have been used as armed combatants by some terrorist and insurgent groups; India is also a destination for women and girls from Nepal and Bangladesh trafficked for the purpose of commercial sexual exploitation; Indian women are trafficked to the Middle East for commercial sexual exploitation; men and women from Bangladesh and Nepal are trafficked through India for forced labor and commercial sexual exploitation in the Middle East
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - India is on the Tier 2 Watch List for a fifth consecutive year for its failure to provide evidence of increasing efforts to combat human trafficking in 2007; despite the reported extent of the trafficking crisis in India, government authorities made uneven efforts to prosecute traffickers and protect trafficking victims; government authorities continued to rescue victims of commercial sexual exploitation and forced child labor and child armed combatants, and began to show progress in law enforcement against these forms of trafficking; a critical challenge overall is the lack of punishment for traffickers, effectively resulting in impunity for acts of human trafficking; India has not ratified the 2000 UN TIP Protocol (2008)
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing world's largest producer of licit opium for the pharmaceutical trade, but an undetermined quantity of opium is diverted to illicit international drug markets; transit point for illicit narcotics produced in neighboring countries and throughout Southwest Asia; illicit producer of methaqualone; vulnerable to narcotics money laundering through the hawala system; licit ketamine and precursor production


Free classified ads to find a job in your area


Students of the World => Countries of the World => India
Home About us Penpals for students Countries of the World Schools of the World Games Blogs Clubs Forums Links

Countries of the World - Detailed information about India - www.StudentsoftheWorld.info
Source : CIA's World Fact Book 2008

Since 2003, January 19